Development of Civil Aviation

Development of Civil Aviation has begun only in the early 20th century, when the joint efforts of Russia and some European countries (Germany, Britain, France) was able to create these types of aircraft, both passenger and cargo airships and airplanes. In Imperial Russia civil aviation had no time to get the proper development due to the impending war and the need for the creation of the Air Force, resulting in transport and civil aviation pre-revolutionary Russia has left almost no Soviet industrial and infrastructural legacy. Therefore, when considering the history and current situation of air transport Russia, we have to talk mainly about the Soviet Civil Air Fleet.
The beginning of the Civil Aviation in the Soviet Union can be considered as adopted January 17, 1921 Decree "0 aircraft movements" which was first established flight rules for Soviet and foreign aircraft over the territory of the RSFSR and its territorial waters. The provisions of the decree were the basis of the USSR Air Code (adopted in 1932, 1935, 1961. 1983). The first episodic airline Moscow - Nizhny Novgorod, 420 km long. was opened in 1923. In November 1921 it was formed mixed "Russian-German Society of Air Communications" ("Derulyuft"), and May 1, 1922 began successfully operate regular international line Moscow-Königsberg (now Kaliningrad). In 1926 the line was extended to Berlin
In the early 20's. aircraft were used in addition to transportation and other types of work. In July 1922 in Moscow (Khodynka) were carried out by experienced airport flights to spray plants with pesticides to kill pests and diseases with / crops. By this time (summer 1922) is conducting aerial surveys of the Caspian Sea, which aims its oil-exploration areas. December 1. 1922 the Directorate General of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Military Air Fleet (Glavvozduhflot) was established CAF Inspection (Civil Air Fleet), designed to develop activities for the development of civil aviation and to monitor its activities. February 9, 1923 Labor and Defense Council (SPC) issued a decree on the organization of the Council for Civil Aviation Glavvozduhflote. This day became the official birthday of Civil Aviation of the USSR. Inspection of CAF is an executive and technical body of the Council. As part of its representatives Head vozduhflota, the Supreme Economic Council, the Foreign Affairs, Trade, Transport, Posts and Telegraphs. The Board directed all the activities of Civil Aviation of the USSR. March 17, 1923 created the first air transport enterprises of the RSFSR - "Dobrolet." In the same year a similar society appeared in the Ukraine, "Ukrvozduhput" and in the Caucasus - "Zakavia" (in December 1929 on the basis of a unified society is organized "Dobrolet the USSR"). Established in March 1923 Friends of Air Force (ODVF), after 3 months had in its ranks 196,895 people., And a year - about 1 million people. ODVF played an important role in strengthening the material-technical base, promoting the achievements of the Civil Aviation of the USSR. October 19, 1923 approved a tentative plan for the SRT development of air services on 1924-26, which included the opening of the new airline, which is over six thousand miles. in industrial areas, as well as in Siberia, the Far East, the Caucasus and Wed Asia.
The development of Soviet airmen airway was held in difficult conditions: in fact there was no means of navigation and communications, meteorological support operations. However, despite these difficulties, the importance of aviation as a vehicle from year to year. The internal line out domestic planes AK-1, U-2, K-5.L/G-4. Successfully operated the aircraft on routes PM1 Moscow - Leningrad, Moscow - Berlin. In 1926, began flying from the USSR in the Mongolian People's Republic of Verkhneudinsk Airlines (now Ulan-Ude) - Urga (now Ulan Bator), and in 1927 opened a line from Leningrad to Berlin, Tashkent and Kabul. During the 1923-28 CAF moved St. 28 thousand passengers and 700 tons of cargo. In 20-ies. flights were made to develop new air routes, quality of homelands, aircraft and engines.
To successfully solve the tasks assigned to the Civil Aviation of the USSR in the prewar five-year plans, we needed new and better forms of organization. In this regard, February 23, 1930 The Board of Civil Aviation was abolished and its functions transferred to the Inspectorate. In order to further centralization of Civil Aviation of the USSR October 29, 1930 SNK All-Union Association was founded CAF (VOGVF) with SRT ("Dobrolet" and Ch. Inspection abolished). February 25, 1932 VOGVF was transformed into Ch. management of CAF (GUGVF) at SNK, known as "Aeroflot". In submission GUGVF trusts were self-supporting "Transaviatsiya", "Selhozaviatsiya" and others that the decision of May 19, 1934 SNK have been eliminated, instead of them formed by 12 regional offices of the Civil Aviation of the USSR: Moscow, Ukrainian, Central Asian, Transcaucasian, Kazakh, North Caucasus , West-Siberian, Volga, Urals, Eastern Siberia, Far East, North. GUGVF were transferred from the USSR People's Commissariat of Agriculture Aviation (November 1932) and the People's Commissariat of the USSR ambulance aircraft (November 1937). For employees of Civil Aviation of the USSR in 1932 were introduced uniforms and insignia. In 1935 he established a badge of "Excellence in Aeroflot." In 30-ies. have developed air transport in the central regions of the country, in Kazakhstan (Airlines joined Alma-Ata to Kustanai, Akmola, Karaganda, etc.), the European North (line Arkhangelsk - Syktyvkar, etc.), in Siberia and the Far East.
Maintenance tasks of scientific - research expeditions in the northern latitudes, ice reconnaissance and ship wiring solved the management of the polar air, part of the NSRA (organized December 17. 1932). Unparalleled in the history of air transport operation to rescue members of the expedition on the steamer "Chelyuskin" has demonstrated the courage of pilots, greater opportunities of domestic aircraft.
In its further development by air of the USSR had to overcome many difficulties, mainly related to its technical base. In the mid-30s on the routes of the Union was flying low and, moreover, already obsolete aircraft K-5, ANT-9, P-5, second to their world counterparts in all respects. Industry People's Commissariat little time engaged in the construction of civil aircraft. GUGVF had small plants and the scientific - research institutes, but they are certainly not able to radically solve the problems of air transport. Partly this was due to the position of civil aircraft in the trendy 20's - 30's concept of civil aviation through the airship, which is also in the Soviet Union was a bias in the first place in the military, so that worked for the civil aviation authority of the Soviet airships were used mainly in agittselyah and as a way of defense. Completely removed from the operation of airships of civil aviation in 1938. In the 1931-1933 GG aircraft were developed, "Steel-2" and "Steel 3", but they soon become obsolete. Removing the data from the aircraft production and operation was also due to the use of deficit in their construction while stainless steel. Some influence on the improvement of the fleet had GUGVF establish production in the United States purchased the license of the prototype 24-seat "Douglas DC-3" Li-2.
In a difficult situation and the airfield was the country's economy. Despite the fact that the airfields were established almost in every regional and regional center of the country, and some of them even have international status, their level was far lower than European counterparts. Even the state of the Moscow airport, the central air base in the country - left much to be desired. By 1940, some of the problems of airports have been resolved. At this time, the USSR, there were 150 major airports, some of which was equipped with a system of blind landing "Noch1" (commissioned in 1939). Park, the Civil Aviation of the USSR is filled with new passenger aircraft PS-35. There was a large network of local lines throughout the country. In 1940 it carried 410 thousand passengers., 475 tons of cargo, 14.6 tons of mail.
It is surprising, really the question of passenger aircraft ventured into the midst of war. By the end of 1943, when our air is completely dominated in the air, when the aviation industry working at full capacity and meet the needs of the front in combat aircraft, it was decided to begin production of passenger vehicles and aircraft.And this was done without prejudice to the combat aircraft. We needed a plane that can fly faster and farther than the Li-2, - then the main commercial aircraft.
In January 1944 discussed the issue of a passenger express train, capable of carrying passengers to a distance of 10.12 4 - 5 thousand kilometers. without landing. It was about the possibility to adapt for this purpose any of the existing bomber aircraft. For example, Er-2 bomber designer VG Ermolaeva. Caused, however, doubt whether it can be a radical alteration of place in the fuselage of the aircraft 12 passengers and provide them with the comfort required for flight within 10-15 hours. At this time, SV Ilyushin was working on twin-engined passenger transport aircraft IL-12. In connection with this conversion of EF-2 in the passenger plane was, of course, inappropriate. Soon, the IL-12 has gone into mass production. And from 1947 on civil flights USSR began to ply twin-engine piston aircraft IL-12, and in the future - a modification of the IL-14. For its time it was an excellent car, very economical and a high degree of safety in flight. During the Great Patriotic War, the Civil Aviation of the USSR by crews at the front and rear, carried more than 2 million 350 thousand people. and 278 tons of cargo.Only with the landing behind enemy lines, they have committed St. 19 thousand sorties, carried 27,574 people., 4549 tons of cargo. As a result of hard work by the end of 1945 have been prepared for use in adverse weather and at night on the airport routes from Moscow to Irkutsk, Moscow and Tashkent - Almaty, Baku, Moscow - Ashgabat. In the whole country in 1945, the volume of air traffic has doubled compared to 1940.
In 1949, West appeared the 60-seater passenger liner "Comet" English company "De Havilland" with four turbojet engines (TRD). "Comet" came into operation in the early 50s. There was a danger of lagging behind our Civil Air Fleet. In the Soviet Union to create the first passenger jet has been resolved by remaking proven reliable operation in the army of serial Tu-16 Tupolev Design. Alteration of the fuselage of the bomber has undergone, or rather, a new fuselage, originally designed to place 50 passengers with the necessary comfort. Despite the difficulties of turning a passenger jet bomber, the Tu-104 was successful designer, especially after the number of passengers increased to 100. For several years beginning in 1956 the Tu-104 was the main engine on the main routes CAF. Cruising speed to exceed 800 km / h and flying range 3100 km. Tu-104 was a great achievement of Soviet aircraft, he paved the way of widespread application of jet passenger aircraft in the air routes of the country.
The question of the new modern passenger aircraft to the Civil Air Fleet was discussed in the Party's Central Committee. Designers Tupolev, Ilyushin, Antonov and leaders of the aviation industry was requested as soon as possible to think the possibility of creating passenger planes that meet current needs and the international prestige of the Soviet Union.
In 1954, Tupolev, Ilyushin and Antonov received specific assignments for new passenger aircraft, competitive with Western models. After a short period of time on the test ground appeared IL-18, AN-10 and An24, as well as for its time, the world's largest airliner, the Tu-114.
Tu-114 is designed for 170 passengers. Range without landing, he had more than any other passenger aircraft. The aircraft has a top speed of 900 km / h. The distance from Moscow to New York Tu-114 covers for the 11-12 hours of flying time. All of these planes after a thorough check was put into mass production, and began to come into operation on overhead lines CAF. A characteristic feature of our passenger aircraft at the time was that they all, except for the Tu-104, on which stood a turbojet engines were equipped with more economical on fuel consumption turboprop installations. Since 1954, began the widespread introduction into service the Mi-1 and Mi-4. In the middle. 50s. Airports 1st Class began equipped kursoglissadnoy landing system SP-50. The widespread introduction of FM radio significantly increased the efficiency of air traffic control and the quality of radio communications between employees air traffic control and aircraft commanders.
In 60 years a prominent place in the Civil Air Fleet took the passenger planes by the Design Bureau Antonov. Of the cars built here it should be noted the 100-seat passenger transport aircraft An-10. Behind him on the air line out the An-24 - 50-seater passenger aircraft with two turboprop engines to 2550 hp. a. and, finally, the AN-22 with four turboprop engines to 15 thousand liters. a. each. An22 was shown twice at the Paris Air Show and attracted attention with its unusually large size: Cargo aircraft cabin so spacious that it can easily host multiple buses. Back in the 40s in the Antonov Design Bureau was set up multi-purpose light single-engine biplane An-2, which has received recognition and widespread not only in our country but also abroad. An-2 is used for many years in various fields of national economy. This trouble-free air and a hard worker in agriculture, and local passenger lines. An-2, like the famous polikarpovsky Po-2 - one of the most durable aircraft of our country. These planes do not have children. Thus, by the end of the 50s on the lines operated by CAF three main passenger aircraft Tu-104, AN-10, IL-18 and Tu-114 transcontinental. Of the first three aircraft in the most economical, having a greater range, better take-off and landing performance and the least demanding to the weather turned out to be a minimum Il18, as it is specifically designed as a purely commercial aircraft with a passenger aircraft with all necessary features. IL-18 for a long time was the primary passenger aircraft overhead lines of the Ministry of Civil Aviation. IL-18 produced commercially for the Extension of the USSR, as well as for export.However, the 122-seat Il-18 - the car the main roads and the country was experiencing a great need in the local aircraft lines. For this purpose, were launched in the series and the beginning of the 60s began to arrive in the line of Aeroflot AN-24 and Tu-124.
The Tu-124, in its architecture and aerodynamic configuration which is the likeness of the Tu-104, but on a smaller scale, has undergone a radical modification will increase the number of seats up to eighty. Later a passenger plane Tu-134, designed to carry passengers on routes medium range, ie in the range 1500-2000 km. Cruising speed of the aircraft 850 km / h. In 1967 he began regular passenger service on the Tu-134.
In 1967 he came to the new transcontinental air line passenger 186-seat giant IL-62. This aircraft was a worthy replacement for the Tu-114 long-distance domestic and international routes of Aeroflot. IL-62 has been the subject of attention at the Paris air shows, where he exhibited alongside other aircraft of the Soviet Union.
Was created by a supersonic passenger plane Tu-144. In 1967 he went to flight-test a 24-seater aircraft of local lines, Yak-40 is specifically designed to operate from airfields in limited sizes. In the Soviet Union, as well as in other countries, most of the local airlines, passengers transported in the slow-moving old piston aircraft, long in need of replacement. In general, in the 70s, many of the world aviation company engaged in the problem of creating high-speed jet aircraft, suitable for use on unpaved airfields of limited size. How badly overdue need for such a plane, shows a curious fact. In the mid-60s in the U.S. was organized by a special contest for the best aircraft for local airlines. Conditions of competition: the aircraft must be operated with a runway length of less than 800 meters, taking 14 to 30 passengers, to be economical to have a cruising speed of 370 km / h and flying range of 1,100 km. Competition due to the fact that the U.S. domestic airlines served mostly obsolete aircraft such as the "Douglas DC-3", "Converter-240", "Martin 202" and the like. By 1970, planned to replace those old, worn, piston-engined car won the contest. But to solve the problem was not so easy. Of the nine projects submitted to the contest, none have been accepted. According to the number of passengers, payload and range Yak-40 belongs to the same class as the IL-12, IL-14 and Li-2, but its cruising speed (550-600 km / h) twice ahis predecessors, and the passenger compartment Yak-40 meets all requirements for comfort at that time. Yak-40 is completely replaced by the aircraft on short routes. In the course of its operation and production number of seats in the passenger cabin of 1970 was increased from 24 to 32, and range - from 600 to 1500 km.
Thus, in 1967, Aeroflot got a whole family of new cars: 186-room Intercontinental IL-62, 80-seat Tu-134 for medium-haul lines and 24-32-seat Yak-40 for short lines.
Also in the 60s. in the Civil Aviation of the USSR, a number of organizational measures aimed at centralizing and improving the industry. January 3, 1960 in keeping GUGVF was transferred to the polar aviation NSRA. July 27, 1964 on the basis of established GUGVF-Union Ministry of Civil Aviation (MCA), which was entrusted to the management of air transport as an integral part of the drug. s Society of the USSR. In submission MGA (organizational structure remained largely until the end. 80s.) Department of Civil Aviation were all Soviet republics who performed the work as transportation and work on the use of aviation in the bunks. x-ve, Transport Department of international air services (with the February 1971 Central control of international air services - TSUMVS). In 1970 carried 71.4 million passengers, 1516.2 tons of cargo, 328.2 tons of mail. November 14, 1970 the Soviet Union became a member of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).
In the framework of ICAO Soviet specialists participated in the preparation of international legal standards regarding liability for damage caused by aircraft, have contributed to the elaboration of a convention on the rights and responsibilities of the commander of the aircraft. Soviet Union was the initiator of the decision on strengthening the work of ICAO in the use of space technology for civil aviation.
In the 70's and 80's. work to improve the Civil Aviation of the USSR continued. In 1972, ACS has been implemented, "Siren" for reservations and ticket sales on domestic routes, which had outlets in the desks, handles more than 40 agencies of "Aeroflot" in major cities across the country. In 1972 came on the line 164-seat main TU-154. In the Tenth Five-Year Plan (1976-1980) continued to update the fleet of Aeroflot. Spent technical resources Tu-104, Tu-114, Tu-124, IL-18 were replaced by IL-62, Tu-134, Tu154. These aircraft are allowed to increase the average speed of delivery of passengers from 620 to 730 km / h They long for air travel has increased from 23 to 70%. In February 1972 the Tu-154 began flying on the route Moscow-Simferopol, and a year-Moscow - Chelyabinsk. In October 1974 the Siberian pilots have mastered this aircraft airline Novosibirsk and Moscow. In 1976, the Tu-154 linked by air to Moscow to Alma-Ata, Bratsk, Barnaul, Yerevan. In Yakutia and Central Asia were 17 operational test-bed aircraft L-410 production Czechoslovakia, designed for local airlines in the Tyumen-IL-76T capacity of 40 tons Admission to the Civil Aviation of the USSR of new technology, expanding the geography of flights require accelerated construction of airport terminal , hotels, commercial warehouses. In 1971-76 was built and commissioned air terminals the total capacity of 20 thousand passengers an hour (including large - Leningrad (St. Petersburg), Alma-Ata, Minsk, Magadan, etc.), hotels in Tyumen, Krasnoyarsk, Surgut, Chita, Salekhard, etc. The growth in air traffic, multi-speed operation of complex aircraft and ground-based aircraft have necessitated the implementation of comprehensive measures to ensure security and improve regularity. In order to improve air traffic control airports were equipped with the new marker beacon landing system and range-azimuth-range navigation beacons. Trunk IL-62, Tu-154 Tu-134 were equipped with the new registration system flight parameters, more sophisticated on-board radio VHF and HF bands.
In 1971-75, increased communication, "Aeroflot" airlines to foreign countries. In November 1972 the Il-62M has paved the airway from Moscow through Algiers and Rabat to Havana. Began flying along the lines of the Moscow-London-New York, Moscow - Paris - Montreal. Successfully operated Trans-Siberian aviamagistral. Between Western Europe and Japan cruised through Soviet planes "Aeroflot" international airline "jala", "Air France", "CAC", "Lufthansa" and others of the USSR has made important suggestions for improving methods of ICAO air navigation, the development of standards for aircraft. introduction of the metric system of units. Continuing to increase the amount of work on service industries cum. s Island, Civil Aviation of the USSR has made a significant contribution to the development of oil and gas fields, construction of gas and oil pipelines. Many of the transportation of heavy bulky equipment were performed by using the IL-76T and the Mi-6 Mi-8, Mi-24. Scale aerial survey facilitated entry to the Civil Aviation of the USSR of new aircraft - An-30 air photographer. In 1971 - 75 was photographed area of ​​28 km2. In rural areas, widespread construction of bases and airfields with paved runways (for concentration. 80s. There were St. In 2000 and St. 400 built). In the fields of Kazakhstan participated in the annual works for the destruction of weeds about 900 aircraft. The cultivated area of ​​the air with a / c. land in the Non-Chernozem zone of the RSFSR of 80 million hectares. Been growing aviation operations for the protection of forest resources of the country, the processing of cotton. In the middle. 70s. Civil Aviation of the USSR became profitable drug industry. x-va country. In 1975, "Aeroflot" has transported 98.1 million passengers, 2091.4 tons of cargo, 380.9 tons of mail.
In 1976-80 it was built more than 80 air terminals total capacity of about 20 thousand passengers per hour in a number of Sheremetyevo-2 airport in Moscow, airport facilities in Tallinn, Frunze (Bishkek), Yerevan, Vladivostok and other reconstruction Vnukovo airport Moscow has increased its capacity to 4100 passengers. Built in 1 hour and reconstructed runway 25 for receiving the IL-62 and Tu-154 Petropavlovsk-Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Pevek, etc. After the launch in January 1977 automated first national "Start" in Leningrad ( St. Petersburg) Pulkovo airport. She has been equipped airports in Kiev (Borispol).Rostov-on-Don, Mineral Waters. Sochi. In 1981, ASU was put into operation at a Moscow air zone, designed for simultaneous processing of data on 325 planes in the air. Equipment continued to IL-62, Tu-154 Tu-134 complex automated approach in bad weather. In order to save jet fuel was carried out further work to "straighten" paths, wider use of simulator technology.
In December 1980 came to the airways new modern airliner and Il86 Yak42. The most capacious after IL-96 native 350-seat aircraft IL-86 is designed for medium-haul trunk airlines with large flows of passengers. It will link major centers of European countries with resorts and cities of the Urals and Central Asia. IL-86 has also helped to increase the volume of traffic and simultaneously reduce the traffic in the busiest areas of air.
The plane with 120 passengers Yak-42, designed for short-range routes and local routes, provided the possibility of its operation from airfields in the 1800 m length of the bar, reach for any of that existed in the 80s aircraft in its class. Thanks to the rational design of aircraft engines and very economical for the Yak-42 as compared to its predecessors, much less fuel consumption on a passenger-kilometer, thus reducing transportation costs. Yak-42 has replaced a number of airlines aircraft An-24, Yak-4 and Tu-134. By 1980, the total length of lines of Aeroflot has reached one million kilometers. They link the 3600 towns and other populated areas of the country and 107 cities in 87 states. The longest route - from Moscow to Rabat-Havana-Lima (16,370 km). Airlines Leningrad-Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (9100 km), Simferopol - Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (9970 km) are the most distant continental air routes in the world. Soviet airships lifted at this time to 450 thousand passengers a day.
In the 80's. passazhmrskie planes created a new generation - a wide-body long-IL-96-300, the average main TU-204, IL-114 for local airlines, etc.
By the end. 80s. "Aeroflot" was carrying more than 120 million annual passengers, about 3 tons of cargo, more than 400 tons of mail. The share of air transport accounted for 20% of total passenger traffic of the USSR, and at long routes (four thousand miles and more) - St. 80%. The share of air transportation in the country's turnover was low (less than 0.1%). Planes of Civil Aviation of the USSR carried out regular flights in 4000 and populated cities, points of Owls.Union and to the airports of nearly 100 foreign countries (see map). The total length of overhead lines of "Aeroflot" has exceeded one million kilometers.Significantly increased speed of traffic, performance, safety and efficiency.Expanded use of civil aviation in agriculture, energy, construction, forestry and other industries.

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