Thursday, June 14, 2012

Aircraft Tu-204

Tu-204 - Russian medium-range passenger aircraft developed in the late 1980s - early 1990s to replace the Tupolev passenger aircraft to airlines Tu-154. The first flight occurred January 2, 1989, in operation since 1994. Produced since 1990 at "Aviastar-SP" in Ulyanovsk, as well as 1996 and on behalf of the CAPO SP Gorbunov Kazan (modification of the Tu-214). Total for January 2012 released about 70 aircraft, of which 50 are operated, the rest are in storage (including 4 car that once belonged to the bankrupt airline in 2008, "Dalavia"). One car had an accident in March 2010 while landing at Domodedovo.Since the production of aircraft began after the "Cold War" NATO codification of the Tu-204 is missing.Their foreign counterparts - Boeing-757 and Airbus A321.By 2015 it was planned to remove the aircraft Tu-204 with the production, replacing them with MC-21 aircraft. However, there is likely to continue production of these planes, and after 2015, and in particular the Ministry of Industry and in 2010 announced his plans for the supply of airline Red Wings in 2016 to 44 Tu-204SM. Completion of certification and the start of serial production of Tu-204SM is scheduled for summer 2012.

History of creation

The choice of concept

Tu-204 at Le Bourget (1991)The development of medium-range passenger aircraft Tu-204 began in the Tupolev Design Bureau in 1973. While working on the new aircraft was considered a variety of schemes and layouts. In parallel to KB was drafting Tu-164, Tu-174, Tu-184, Tu-194. Further development of the exploratory research was to develop the concept of development of the main planes through the creation of 2.3 with a further base types derived from them by modifying all the necessary scale. One of these was the basic aircraft Tu-204. Work on its design was headed by Chief Designer Leonid Leonidovich Selyakov. Originally supposed to establish it two engines NK-8-2U. The design assumed greater continuity with the serial Tu-134 and Tu-154. Many designs were taken from the Tu-134D projects and Tu-136, whose development was carried out at this time in size.By the mid-1970s, the Tu-204 project is transformed into the "Airbus", similar in layout decisions to the American DC-10 aircraft. Its different from the fuselage length of 48 m, a wing of moderate sweepback (28 °) with a powerful mechanization along the trailing edge. As a power plant engines were considered the D-30A, D-30KU, promising turbofan and TVVD [1]. The family had to enter short-haul Tu-204-100-204 and Tu-150 medium-range Tu-204-200 and Tu-204-250. Later, in 1977-1978., Addressed two main areas: the twin-engine Tu-204-200 and Tu-204 trimotored-300.


Tu-214 in Zhukovsky, 1997In the late 1970s there was a decision of the Council of Ministers on the establishment of new passenger mainline aircraft. Tupolev by order directed the development of medium-range aircraft to replace the Tu-154 [1]. In 1979, the lead designer of the Tu-204 is approved, Leonid Selyakov. In the design of widely used computer technology. When choosing the power plant was chosen for the foreseeable future engine D-90 EDO Solovyov. Within two years the project has been redesigned for this engine (originally in trimotored version). August 11, 1981 the Resolution of the Council of Ministers on the development of medium-range passenger aircraft trimotored. July 20, 1982 MCA and MAP approved terms of reference of the aircraft. In the same year was presented to the customer preliminary design and layout of the aircraft.With the Boeing 757, Boeing 767 and A300 aircraft requirements have changed - he became a twin-engined (this time pull the D-90A was increased to 16,000 kg). The new terms of reference were approved December 15, 1983. The design of the aircraft were used new aluminum and titanium alloys, and composite materials [1]. To reduce the number of joints have been used long-length panels. Scheme is applied an improved sound insulation and new paints. All systems are designed on the basis of new principles and with the widespread use of digital technology. A lot of effort and attention paid to cockpit ergonomics.In 1987 the Ulyanovsk Aircraft Plant has started production preparation. In 1988 at the experimental production of the Antonov produced the first prototype. January 2, 1989, he first took to the sky. The bulk of production tests completed by December 1993. Without waiting for the end of the test plant "Aviastar" began production. August 17, 1990 was released the first production Tu-204. Performance tests on the aircraft were from March to December 1993 the airline "Vnukovo Airlines." January 12, 1995 issued by Gosaviaregistr Russian Tu-204 Certificate of Airworthiness. February 23, 1996 Tu-204 made its first flight with passengers on the route Moscow - Mineral Water.


TU-204 is largely out of luck. He was to become as widespread as its predecessor, the Tu-154. Specifically for its production was even built from scratch a new factory in Ulyanovsk. However, with the collapse of the Soviet aircraft industry was sharply reduced funding, the planned economy was replaced by the market, and Tu-204 first lost the competition used cars western production, and eventually simply outdated in many respects (in particular, the crew of the Tu-204 modifications (except SM) consists of three people, while on most modern airliners - two people, hence the additional cost of the pilots). At the present time is up to 10 aircraft per year, most of which - to the Arctic Ocean, "Russia" and the Air Force. Because of the inability of Kazan and Ulyanovsk aircraft factories to mass production (making cost-effective operation of the aircraft) and high-quality after-sales service system, the Tu-204 is not a special demand for commercial air carriers, although the last modification of the SM could make a real competition to foreign best-selling A320 and Boeing 737. At the same time, some airlines (including very large Transaero and Red Wings) have expressed interest in buying aircraft Tu-204. KLA and the Ministry of Industry consider the Tu-204 "turn the page" and instead of subsidizing the production of the Tu-204 prefer to invest in other projects. 04/07/2011 in an interview with ISNA, head of Civil Aviation Organization of Iran Reza Nahdzhavani said that the statement of Dmitry Medvedev, the fact that Russian aircraft have technical flaws, was an additional argument in favor of the abandonment of the country's fleet of aircraft manufactured by KB "Tupolev" [4] .In the first quarter of 2012 JSC "Tupolev" has in its portfolio of orders for 42 aircraft (35 options) Tu-204SM. The distribution of orders by airlines: 15 (10) - Red Wings, 10 (12) - "Bashkortostan" ("VIM Avia"), 5 (10) - "Aviastar-TU", 6 (-) "Aeroflot" ("Beijing Air "), 3 (3) -" Cosmos "(RSC" Energia "), 3 (-)" Mirny AP "(JSC" Alrosa ") [5].


  • Tu-204-500 - Modification based on the Tu-204-300, designed for short routes. Currently, no aircraft has been constructed.
  • Tu-204P - ASW. Funding for the program was discontinued. But in 2008 the program received a chance to survive.
  • Tu-206 - Tu-204 variant with a "cryogenic" engines.
  • Tu-304 - a large long-haul passenger aircraft seating capacity.

Aircraft performance 

The scheme of the Tu-204 Tu-204 is built on the aerodynamic configuration cantilever low. Swept wings of high aspect ratio formed supercritical profiles. In order to reduce induced drag the wing given a negative aerodynamic twist endings and set the vertical. Lift consists of a double-slit flaps and slats along the leading edge. Chassis - retractable, tricycle, with the nose strut. The power plant consists of two PS-90A. The cockpit is equipped with color displays and the Y-shaped central pens with small moves. The control system aircraft and engines - wire. According to Chairman of the Board of Directors of "Engines" Vladimir Klimov - Motor Sich "Colonel General AP Sitnov - the only aircraft in its class in the world that can be planted without engines.


Since the beginning of mass production (1990) was made 69 Tu-204 aircraft of all modifications. On November 4, 2011 in operation 53 aircraft Tu-204.

Countries that use the Tu-204. 

Thursday, May 31, 2012

Aircraft Tu-134UB-L

In the late 70's OKB been developing a training aircraft for pilots training with long-range aviation aerobatic qualities inherent in combat vehicles. Originally supposed to do it on the basis of the draft passenger Tu-136, but settled on a modification of the Tu-134B, satisfies the requirements for pilot training Tu-22M.

Tu-134UB-A with D-30 engines, 2nd series was designed for training pilots piloting instrument in simple and adverse weather conditions, air navigation, landing in director or automatic modes. The plane had to fly in a minimum of 2 nd category ICAO. Unlike its predecessor, the Tu-134UB-A installed a new forward fuselage, similar to the Tu-22M-3 radome radar ╚ ROSE-1 ╩.

The initial project involves the installation of machines in the nose of the bar system in-flight refueling, but due to the removal of similar equipment from the Tu-22M, it was abandoned. According to the composition of equipment it is mostly consistent with the Tu-134B, except for radio communication and navigation systems, typical of combat vehicles. For students and 12 seats were designed to scan, set in three rows. In flight, the cadets were trained at a time as the second pilot.

The first machine was built on the HAPO in January of 1981 until spring released several production aircraft, has successfully passed together with the customer flight tests. Before the 1983rd association deposited 90 Tu-134UB-A. For naval aviation produced a copy of the modified Tu-134UB-K for training navigators, navigators, and navigators, operators of the Tu-22M.

Thursday, May 24, 2012

Aircraft Tu-154M

The Tu-154 is an extension of the well-known jet Tu-154V medium-range missiles.Due to improvements made ​​by the aerodynamic and installing more efficient engines D-30KU significantly improved characteristics of the aircraft in terms ofspecific fuel consumption. Created in the Yakovlev Design Bureau. Tupolev.

Aircraft performance
3 persons
Cruising speed 
950 km/h
Flight range
5200 km.
Maximum payload
18 tones
Length required for take-off and landing 
2500 m.
The maximum takeoff weight
100 tones
Maximum landing weight
80 tones
Maximum weight without fuel
74 tones
Maximum weight of fuel
39,75 tones
Maximum passengers
180-160 persons
Fuel consumption
5,4 tones an hour