Tupolev A.N.

Andrei N. Tupolev [10.29 (10.11) .1888, p. Pustomazovo Tver Province. Now Kalinin region., - 23.12. 1972, Moscow]
In 1908 he entered the Imperial Technical School (later School) in 1918 graduated with honors.
Since 1909 the school under the leadership of NE Zhukovsky started in aeronautic circle. He participated in the construction of the airframe, which alone made the first flight (1910).
In the years 1916-18 Tupolev participated in the work of Russia's first air current offices; designed the first wind tunnels at the school. Together with the Zhukovskii was the organizer and one of the leaders of TsAGI.
In 1918-36 years - Member of the Board and the deputy head of the Institute for an experienced all-metal aircraft construction.

In 1918-35, Deputy Head of the Institute. In 1922 he formed in the TsAGI and headed pilot CB, whose activity was associated with the development of heavy ground, naval combat and civilian aircraft, torpedo boats and snowmobiles. In 1922-24 he directed the work on introduction of Duralumin in the aircraft, and in 1924-25 established ANT and ANT-2-3 - the first Soviet all-metal aircraft. The use of Duralumin in the design of aircraft Tupolev allowed for the first time in the country to move from a biplane to a cantilever monoplane.

Tupolev developed over 100 types of aircraft, 70 of which were produced commercially. On aircraft Tupolev won 78 world records, performed 28 unique flights, including rescue boat crew "Chelyuskin" on ANT-4, non-stop flights to the U.S. via the North Pole crew VPChkalov and MM Gromov at the ANT -25, the landing of a scientific expedition "North Pole", headed by Papanin. A large number of bombers, torpedo bombers, the Tupolev design scouts (TB-1, TB-3, SB, TB-7, MTB-2, W-2) and torpedo boats T-4, F-5 was used in combat in WorldPatriotic War 1941 - 1945.

Milestone aircraft Tupolev, which embodies the latest advances in science and technology and aviation construction in the prewar period were: the bombers ANT-4, ANT-6, ANT-40 ANT-42, TU-2 passenger aircraft ANT-9, ANT- 14, ANT-20 "Maxim Gorky" and ANT-25 record.

He was wrongly arrested and 1937-41, respectively, while in custody, he worked in the NKVD TSK.B-29. Here he established front-line bomber "103" (TU-2).

In the postwar period led Tupolev (in 1956 he was Chief Designer), a number of military and civilian planes: the Tu-4 (a copy of an American B-29), Tu-12 Tu-95 Tu-16 Tu-22. Based on the Tu-16 was created in 1955 the first Soviet passenger jet Tu-104. It was followed by the first intercontinental turboprop Tu-114, Tu-124, Tu-134, Tu-154, as well as the supersonic passenger plane Tu-144 (with AA Tupolev).

Tupolev honorary member of the Royal Aeronautical Society of Great Britain (1970) and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (1971). He was awarded the Prize of Zhukovsky (1958), the gold medal of the FAI Aviation (1958), Prize. Leonardo da Vinci (1971), Gold Medal of the Society of the founders of Air France (1971). Lenin Prize (1957), USSR State Prize (1943, 1948, 1949, 1952, 1972). He was awarded eight Orders of Lenin and Suvorov 2nd degree.

At the Tupolev aircraft set 78 world records, holds 28 unique flights, including VP Chkalov and Gromov on the ANT-25 over the North Pole in the U.S..

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