Thursday, May 31, 2012

Aircraft Tu-134UB-L

In the late 70's OKB been developing a training aircraft for pilots training with long-range aviation aerobatic qualities inherent in combat vehicles. Originally supposed to do it on the basis of the draft passenger Tu-136, but settled on a modification of the Tu-134B, satisfies the requirements for pilot training Tu-22M.

Tu-134UB-A with D-30 engines, 2nd series was designed for training pilots piloting instrument in simple and adverse weather conditions, air navigation, landing in director or automatic modes. The plane had to fly in a minimum of 2 nd category ICAO. Unlike its predecessor, the Tu-134UB-A installed a new forward fuselage, similar to the Tu-22M-3 radome radar ╚ ROSE-1 ╩.

The initial project involves the installation of machines in the nose of the bar system in-flight refueling, but due to the removal of similar equipment from the Tu-22M, it was abandoned. According to the composition of equipment it is mostly consistent with the Tu-134B, except for radio communication and navigation systems, typical of combat vehicles. For students and 12 seats were designed to scan, set in three rows. In flight, the cadets were trained at a time as the second pilot.

The first machine was built on the HAPO in January of 1981 until spring released several production aircraft, has successfully passed together with the customer flight tests. Before the 1983rd association deposited 90 Tu-134UB-A. For naval aviation produced a copy of the modified Tu-134UB-K for training navigators, navigators, and navigators, operators of the Tu-22M.

Thursday, May 24, 2012

Aircraft Tu-154M

The Tu-154 is an extension of the well-known jet Tu-154V medium-range missiles.Due to improvements made ​​by the aerodynamic and installing more efficient engines D-30KU significantly improved characteristics of the aircraft in terms ofspecific fuel consumption. Created in the Yakovlev Design Bureau. Tupolev.

Aircraft performance
3 persons
Cruising speed 
950 km/h
Flight range
5200 km.
Maximum payload
18 tones
Length required for take-off and landing 
2500 m.
The maximum takeoff weight
100 tones
Maximum landing weight
80 tones
Maximum weight without fuel
74 tones
Maximum weight of fuel
39,75 tones
Maximum passengers
180-160 persons
Fuel consumption
5,4 tones an hour

Aircraft Tu-154B

The Tu-154 passenger jet is the middle range and is designed for use on routesextending from 500 to 4000km. Three power-efficient engine with low specific fuel consumption of a good power-to provide an aircraft and a large range.The complex flight and navigation equipment provides automatic flight and automatic approach for the two categories of ICAO. Endurance aircraft maintenance is achieved by using on board auxiliary power unit, which provides a self-startengines, air conditioning systems work in salons while parked and taxiing aircraft, testing of all systems on the ground without starting the main engines.Created in the Yakovlev Design Bureau. Tupolev.

Aircraft performance
3 persons
Cruising speed 
900 - 950 km/h
Height of up
12000 m.
Flight range
3250 km.
Required runway lenght
2200 m.
The maximum takeoff weight
96000 kg.
Maximum landing weight
78000 kg.
Maximum payload
18000 kg.
Maximum passengers
Maximum weight of fuel
39,7 tones

Power plant
The power plant consists of three turbojet bypass engines with thrust reversers(NK8-2U). Take-off thrust of one engine sostovlyaet 10 500 kg, fuel consumption is 6.2 tons hour. Start engines produced by the auxiliary power unit, which is locatedin the rear fuselage. The side engines reverse thrust with the device that reduces the length of the landing run.

Aircraft Tu-134

Tu-134 (commonly call this aircraft a whistle or a dude tupolenok) - Soviet passenger aircraft for the airlines of small and medium-haul, developed in the early 1960s in the Yakovlev Design Bureau. Tupolev and mass-produced from 1965 to 1984 at the Kharkov Aviation Production Association.
TU 134 it is one of the most popular passenger aircraft, gathered in the Soviet Union. A total of 852 aircraft of all modifications. The first flight was made July 29, 1963, the liner is in operation since September 1967.
By the early 1960s, the basis of short-haul fleet of aircraft in the Soviet Union and socialist countries were piston IL-14, who took on board 36 passengers. At this time, the Civil Aviation entered into a jet era.
The first in the Soviet Union jet Tu-104 was used only at the international and especially intra-loaded lines, while used on regional routes become obsolete aircraft. There was a need for a jet with a range up to 2000 km and a cruising speed of 800-900 km / h and passenger capacity of at least 40 people, which could be used on short runways.
It is considered that the Tu-134 owes its appearance directly to Nikita Khrushchev. In 1960, the First Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee was a guest at the launch in France of a new jet-Sud Caravelle Aviación. The plane made an impression on the Soviet leader, and on his return to the Soviet Union, Khrushchev ordered Tupolev to develop an analogue.
Initially, the Tu-134 is not designed as a new aircraft. In the KB was the idea of ​​modernization of the Tu-124. The plane lengthened fuselage, engines moved to the tail section and empennage replaced the T-shaped. The project, under the designation Tu-124A was developed in 1961. The first two prototypes were produced in 1963. In July of that year, the aircraft first took to the sky.
Flight testing and certification began in the summer of 1963. In 1965 the aircraft was given the designation Tu-134. At the same time, it was discontinued the production of the Tu-124. Serial production started in 1966. Tu-134 was produced at the Kharkov Aviation Production Association for 18 years (from 1966 to 1984).
The aircraft was designed for short-haul lines with low passenger traffic. Originally intended to place in an airplane 56 seats for passengers (two-class configuration of 50). But from the first class on the airplanes that were intended for intra-lines, soon decided to abandon. Due to this, the number of seats could bring up to 72.
In 1965, nine were produced specifically for pre-production aircraft flight tests. On the reverse of these ships was absent because of what mileage after landing was very large. Interestingly, the CB had planned to install on the Tu-134 brake parachutes like the Tu-104. However, this idea was soon abandoned. At the same time, engines with a thrust reverser on the Tu-134 were installed only in 1970. Were converted copies of all previously released. Prior to this plane helped slow a special guard under the fuselage - a very rare phenomenon in civil aviation.
The first production Tu-134 were transferred to Aeroflot in 1966. In September 1967 the Tu-134 was made the first commercial flight from Moscow to Adler.However, almost three years, the plane used only on international routes, and only in the summer of 1969 began to serve the intra-Moscow-Leningrad and Moscow and Kiev. Tu-134 is actively exported: in 1968 the first machines were sold to the East German airline Interflug, and later the Polish LOT.
In 1970 he developed a modification of Tu-134A. The aircraft fuselage was lengthened by two feet, installed on the engines reverse, brake shield removed, the number of seats increased to 76. As a result, the maximum flight range of 3100 km was reduced to 2770 km, with maximum payload - up to 2100 km. On airplanes, intended for export, it was decided to abandon the navigator and the radar set.
By early 1972, most of the Tu-134 continued to be used on international routes, while regular flights inside the USSR was only twelve: from Moscow to Baku, Yerevan, Kiev, Kishinev, Krasnodar, Leningrad, Omsk, Sochi and Riga. However, the May 18, 1972 near Kharkov crashed AN-10. In the disaster killed 116 people, and the flights of this type should be immediately discontinued.
In 1973, due to errors identified in the design of the operation of the AN-10 declined at all. Many Soviet airports began an urgent improvement of runways to receive the Tu-134. Due to lack of aircraft on regional routes most of the Tu-134 Sheremetyevo and Vnukovo, without exception, all squadrons have decided to replace the newly designed Tu-154 and Il-62 long-haul.
In 1980 he began production of the Tu-134B. In this modification of the navigator abandoned completely. In addition, the seating capacity was increased to 96 seats. Take-off weight increased to 47 tons. Also began the development of the Tu-134D version with increased thrust engines (8400 kg), but work on the aircraft were terminated.
Currently, the Tu-134 being phased out of service, as morally and physically obsolete: the latest released instances of more than a quarter century.
Tu-134 engines installed in the rear fuselage. Production aircraft equipped with turbojet bypass construction Soloviev D-30 (SS-30). The engine is made of two-shaft scheme consists of a compressor, separating the body from the boxes drive units, combustion chambers, turbines and an output device, equipped with a reversing device. Starting the engine air starter. Electronic ignition system, ignition unit includes SKNA-22-2A and two spark surface discharge SP-06VP.
Over the years, operating the Tu-134 has shown its reliability and efficiency, meeting all requirements of the time. In terms of safety factor Tu-134 proved to be virtually trouble free. The outstanding feature of the aircraft are unmatched to this day limit on the values ​​of the counter (30 m / c) and lateral (20 m / s) components of the wind during takeoff and landing.
In the USSR, where the vast majority of airports have only one runway, this quality has played a significant role in increasing regularity. After the entry into force of Chapter 3 of Annex 16 of ICAO in 2002, tougher noise standards for aircraft, operation of TU-134 in the EU countries was prohibited, and today it is used almost exclusively on domestic routes in Russia and CIS countries.
After the crash of Tu-134 at the airport Kurumoch in March 2007 it was announced that by 2015 the operation of aircraft of this model has been discontinued. January 1, 2008 the owner of one of the largest fleet of Tu-134 Aeroflot, stopped their operation. Part of the aircraft was transferred to the subsidiary Aeroflot Nord and Aeroflot-Don, some sold, some written off.
Until the early 1990s, the Tu-134 fleet in the USSR has carried 500 million passengers and now continues to work on the lines of the CIS countries and in the Air Force. At the beginning of 2006 were in operation 245 Tu-134, 162 of them - in Russia. By mid 2007 the number of Russian Tu-134 was reduced to 146 a year - up to 117 by early 2009 to around 100.
They are replaced by the Boeing 737, Airbus A319 and the Antonov An-148. In the long term to replace the last Tu-134 planes have come Superjet-100 project.More than half of the flying machines are used in Russia as a business charter.Among the users of the Tu-134, using them on regular flights - UTAir and Yamal.
In addition to passenger services, some modification of the Tu-134 are used in military and agricultural aviation. Thus, the Tu-134UBL training pilots undergo long-range aircraft (modification for training pilots of Tu-22M), the Tu-134SH - navigators (in the cabin, there are several full-time jobs for navigators navigators Tu-22M). We construct a number of machines for passenger-transport team personnel BC (staff), including special communication and equipped (ASDs).

Aircraft performance
3 persons
Cruising speed 
850 km/h
Flight range
1890 km.
Length required for take-off 
2400 m.
Length required for landing 
2200 m.
The maximum takeoff weight
47000 kg.
Maximum landing weight
43000 kg.
Curb weight of an aircraft 
29050 kg.
Permissible payload 8200
8200 kg.
The valid range of CG at takeoff, in flight, on landing: the front (chassis released),
21 %MAR
The valid range of CG at takeoff, in flight, on landing: back (removed the chassis)
38 %MAR

Aircraft Tu-128

Tu-128 (NATO: Fiddler - «Fiddler (street)") - a Soviet double loitering long-range interceptor.

In 1955, the Soviet air defense interceptors needed for long-range defense vast territory of the Soviet Union. Due to the huge air space, even with more advanced economies, it would be impossible to provide full ground-air defense. In order to provide the necessary range, the ability to be a powerful radar and missile air-to-air, Tupolev developed an aircraft similar to the Tu-105 (Tu-22). Designed Tu-102 first flew in 1959 and became known as the Tu-28P, serial production began in 1963. He was replaced by the final Tu-128.

Loitering interceptor Tu-128 is based on the failure supersonic bomber Tu-98, which had extensive low-lying swept wings, bearing the main landing gear in fixed wing compartments, and low-lying stabilizers. Two turbojet engine AL-7F-2 were located in the fuselage. In contrast, the Tu-22, he did not have an internal weapons bay. Armament was fixed on the wing pylons and the fuselage used for the huge fuel tanks. Tu-28P had two separated cabins for two people, placed one after the other.

As Western experts have suggested the Tu-102 was a big built-in radar, but the bulge on the underside of the aircraft is actually included test equipment. At the Tu-28P had a great nose cone for teploradiolokatsionnoy missile weapons control system "Cyclone-100" with a radius of detection of approximately 50 kilometers and capture targets 40 kilometers away. Thanks to the long-range detection radar was not required precise conclusion on the target aircraft with ground-based guidance system, it could target and catch yourself. In autonomous operations required only a few data on the status of air targets. This allowed us to use it in areas where there were no computer-aided guidance. Later, he often flew in the group with AWACS aircraft Tu-126. As a pure interceptor, the Tu-28P was almost no electronic warfare systems and protective equipment and warning system for radar illumination, like a smaller Sukhoi interceptors.

Tu-28 was a pure interceptor with high wing loading, simple equipment and poor visibility, high weight, maneuverability and modest. The aircraft was designed to intercept bombers of NATO, such as the B-52, but not for air combat with smaller aircraft.

Tu-28 weapons were four missiles air-KB Binosvata R-4/K-80. The usual configuration of the weapons were two F-4F with a semi-active radar-guided on the outer pylons and two P-4T infrared-guided internal. Tu-128 complex was renovated in the 70s and adopted for use with missiles R-and R-4PM 4TM.

December 12, 1963 order of the Minister of Defence 00 134 number assigned name for the aircraft missile system to intercept (ARKP) as the Tu-128S-4, comprising:
Tu-128 - the plane
P-and R-4P 4T - missiles "air-to-air"
Radar RP-C "Whirlwind"

Release of the Tu-128 ended in 1970. A total of 188 aircraft were built. Also in 1971, was released 10 training aircraft, and 4 have been converted from a fighter named TU-128UT with additional front cabin on the ground radar. Advanced Projects Design Bureau named Tu-138 and Tu-148 development is not received.


In aviation, it is often when once found, the layout is used repeatedly to create a more modern aircraft, or other purposes. So it was in 1920 when the Tupolev by linear scaling scheme developed TB-1 TB 3, TB 4, TB-6 and STA-20. And if the TB-3 satisfy the requirements of the early 1930s, and served until 1945, then the next giant step in the design turned out to be regressive in the air and were either in single units or projects.

Beaten track went. Tupolev and thirty years later. This time, he reduced the geometry of the Tu-104, and retaining all its flaws, has created a short-haul passenger Tu-124. It should be noted that, initially, the OKB-156 under the code "124" was worked long "low-flying bomber", then the index passed to civilian car, finally securing the Design Bureau index of all passenger aircraft.

Development of a new liner with bypass turbojet engines D-20P (EDO PA Soloviev) takeoff thrust of 5500 kgf started in accordance with the decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of July 18, 1958. The plane, according to the technical specifications, intended for the "connection with the republican capital regional and major industrial centers and links between them, as well as for flights on international routes ...".

Government document provided to the liner was carrying 36-40 passengers (5000 kg payload) at a distance of 1350-1500 km at a cruising speed of 750-900 km / h for the navigation of fuel left for 30 minutes of flight. Maximum speed wondered at least 950 km / h, and the length of run and run - within 800 meters Crew - 4 people. Envisaged the possibility of conversion "of the aircraft in the airfield conditions for the transport of troops, the wounded and the various loads. Document also instructed to complete the finishing of the D-20P with a thrust of 5800 kg.

It should be noted that three years ago, a machine similar applications developed by OKB-240 under the leadership of Ilyushin. IL-16 with four turbojet engines AM-9 was carrying 40 passengers at a distance of 1600 km. But he has remained on paper.

Use the D-20P with low temperature and velocity of exhaust gases reduced the noise level, but only slightly. But before the engine is installed on the passenger liner, it was flight-tested on the Tu-4LL, and then, in accordance with the decision of the Council of Ministers on the establishment of the Tu-124, finishing in three flying laboratory Tu-110B. Improving the reliability of turbojet and promoted the use of the individual units in a helicopter turboshaft engine A-25.

A more rigid structure of the wing, according to developers, helped to reduce jolting aircraft when passing through areas with high air turbulence (turbulence).

According to the LL Selyakov at the selected zoom factor 0, 8 produces a fuselage diameter of 2 and 8 pm However, since the time of copying the B-29 tooling production plants producing the Tu-4 was calculated under the fuselage diameter of 2, 9 m , which was for the Tu-124. But where is the Tu-4 is unclear, because the planes were produced at different factories. Most likely not assemble salon. The total volume of pressurized fuselage compartments was 122 m3, while in the passenger cabin had less than half - 50, 15 cu. m

March 24, 1960 the crew of the first test pilot AD Kalina Bureau made its first flight on the Tu-124 (USSR-45000). Following this, the crew of a test pilot GK NII VVS AK Starikov state tests began to ship. It should be noted that by this time in "Aeroflot", including the Research Institute of Civil Aviation had enough pilots with experience flying on a jet plane, but apparently, the old ties with the military did their job. Moreover, with the inception of the Tu-124 provided to military applications.

In the same year at the Kharkov Aviation Plant (then called 135) released the first production car modeled on the state tests have held experimental Tu-124. At the State Research Institute of Aviation Tu-124 with tail number 45 004 passed in November 1961. Lead test pilot assigned N. Malinin. Looking ahead, we note that the first production car in June 1963rd finalized and handed over to the defense.

As with all aircraft, the Tu-124 had a mass of operational constraints. In particular, in normal use his speed should not exceed more than 0, 78, the speed of sound, although the reduction was allowed during an emergency flight to the number of "M" to 0, 86. Limiting the height of the flight was limited to 11,200 m

Apparently mindful of the failures of the Tu-104, a new car experienced a failure in a tailspin. It was found that the plane, like its predecessor, features closer to the minimum allowable velocity was not, but kept the effectiveness of all controls.Upon reaching the air speed of 210 km / h at altitudes of 11-12 km, where there are anomalies with very high turbulence of the air, began shaking while stalling the wing. 
In that case, the method worked out of the dangerous machine output mode.

According to the test pilots, Tu-124 had a large stock of the longitudinal and lateral stability than the Tu-104. At the same stock of elevators and their effectiveness were also higher. Note that the alignment of the plane could be varied in the range of 21 to 30% of the mean aerodynamic chord.

A year later, after the completion of operational testing, held once in five cars, 20 October began regular flights with passengers, first on the route Moscow - Tallinn, next month in Ulyanovsk, and in December in Vilnius. During the first three years of production the 135th factory built 35 passenger cars.

Since April 1964 the flight of Tu-124 en route from Moscow to Warsaw began international shipping. So Tu-124 in conjunction with the An-24 began rapidly to displace from the airline passenger IL-14.

The first production cars were distinguished by an elongated nose, limited the visibility when landing. The third production aircraft nose section shortened to 500 mm and a few dropped down. Their production began with the eleventh car. Due to the heavy weight of the insulation of the first production Tu-124 greater than 300 kg of the settlement, and the lack of margin of the wing led to a gross weight limit of the first 16 aircraft at 34,500 pounds and maximum values 
​​of the velocity head.Subsequently, during the repair of these machines installed reinforced console.

In the summer of 1971, I happened to be aboard the Tu-124. The first thing that caught my eye, this is a threshold in the cabin, stumbling on which it was not worth the labor. As in the Tu-104, it appeared from the wing center section, which, according to the ideas I had to hide under the floor. Pretty close, but comfortable cockpit was match for the passenger compartment, but more on comfort, when man of medium height knees rest against the front seat, however.

There was no auxiliary power unit (APU), whose mission is air conditioning in a pressurized cabin on the ground. If in winter you can warm the interior by means of ground ovens, then had to sweat in the summer, waiting for takeoff. APU came later, but on other aircraft. Instead of centralized refueling fuel was poured into separate groups of tanks, which delayed the re-training machines to crash.

Getting into the modern passenger jet, it is impossible not to notice the emergency exits. In the Tu-124 did not. The only door there was at the top of the fuselage, although provided for emergency escape and through the cargo hatch in the tail. Passengers lucky. To my knowledge, the escape hatch only once been used for its intended purpose. In one of the flights on the route Tallinn - Leningrad during the approach did not come out the front landing gear.

Having decided at an emergency landing, the crew poured the fuel, but not calculated. Before the airport was far away and had to sit on the water surface of the Neva. Passengers and crew successfully evacuated, after which the ship sank. I must say, on an airplane provided for the installation of an inflatable emergency ladders, but they are known to have appeared later on the Tu-124 were not used.

Another feature of the ship, preserved in the Tu-134 had two entrance doors on the left side. Front of them was used for entry and exit of passengers on the ladder, but to the rear, with good intentions, does not roll up the ladder and it was actually used as a utility with a ladder.

Wing aircraft with looking like a Tu-104 was different mechanization. Besides the traditional slotted flap, incidentally ineffective on its outer surface located air brakes - spoilers, deflected by an angle 52 only after touching the wheels on the chassis of the runway. There was a landing flap and under the fuselage, but good of him, and indeed from the spoilers, as I understood, was not enough.

Control of the aircraft as the Tu-104 was hand wheel with a hard wired to the handlebars, and ailerons. About any boosters on a passenger plane in those years, Tupolev, and would not hear. The control system on all three channels are included servos autopilot AP-6E. Release Management landing flap and flaps electromechanical, interceptors - hydraulic.

In general, all on the Tu-124 was quite conservative, even the landing gear was calculated to operate from unpaved airfields. To shorten the path used by the drag chute area of 
​​40 square meters. m, placed in a container in the rear fuselage.

Life-support system, except for air conditioning, oxygen equipment consisted of the crew (for the prevention of fatigue) and passengers (in case of the illness). In addition, there were portable oxygen equipment of the crew to move in the depressurised cabin for passengers who feel the lack of oxygen.

To ensure flight safety in icing conditions the front edge of the wing and the air intake TRD shell warmed by hot air, taken from the fourth stage of the compressor engines. The front edges of the fin and stabilizer mounted electro-icing device.Windscreens cockpit and the navigator had a molecular film heating, and the glass canopy pilots installed mechanical wiper motor type "janitors." In case of failure of one engine plane could continue to rise and fly at altitudes of 5000 m Tu-124 had a standard radio equipment. Note only radar sight RLV-NAM, acting on the principle of radar PSBN-MA and used to solve navigation problems.

The crew consisted of two pilots, navigator and flight attendants.

Right at the same time the pilot was a radio operator, navigator - the operator of the radar sighting device. At the beginning of operation of the flight engineer was a member of the crew temporarily. Starting from the car 1350303, provided the installation in wartime landing and sanitary equipment.

On the aerodynamic perfection of the liner shown by the following figures. In cruise flight, for example, at an altitude of 10,000 m and the speed of 780 km / h, corresponding to the number of M = 0, 725 aircraft had a glide 12, 5, and the run-up to the flaps to 20 degrees.

The first modification was the navigator training and the Tu-124SH, whose production has begun on a 135-m plant in 1962. The aircraft radar sighting was replaced by the radar, "Rubin-1A" with the two indicators. In the lounge equipped with a few jobs for students-navigators. Starting from 1963, were installed on the aircraft wing racks DB-360 (between the engine nacelles and landing gear) with lifting devices, bombs caliber from 50 to 250 kg. One holder permitted suspension of up to four bombs weighing 1,000 kg.

Due to rebuild shops on the aircraft, designated Tu-124V, it was possible to increase the number of passenger seats to 56 and thereby improve the efficiency of the liner. On this machine the three shops have one, by removing unnecessary tables and installing lightweight chairs with backs, folding tables staffed. Range with payload of 5000 kg has remained the same 1500 km. Three of these machines in 1963 and 1964 respectively set to Czechoslovakia, where they were exploited by "HSA" and the same in the GDR and China. They can be found in India. Two of the aircraft was sold to Iraq. Serial production of this modification was completed in the spring of 1966.

In addition to the machines of "Aeroflot", produced and cabin options for both the USSR and abroad. Three of these aircraft were operated in India. Built and vans, convertible cars. In particular, the Tu-124K was intended for the carriage of cargo and 36 passengers, and second, the Tu-124K-2 - 22 passengers.

In 1963, the plant 135 released three experimental Tu-124B engines from the D-20P-125, characterized by increased take-off thrust up to 5800 kg and reduced fuel consumption. At the same time, they also had a larger diameter, which required revision nacelles. Apparently, the advantages of the new power plant, "drowned" in the increased drag and weight of the power plant. In "Aeroflot" Tu-124B is not received. In addition, 29 July 1963rd made the first flight of Tu-124A with the same engines (USSR-45075), which became the prototype of the Tu-134. Advantages of the new machine were obvious, and further develop the not very successful Tu-124 had no meaning.

During the period from 1962 to 1965, the first plant 135 produced 165 Tu-124 of all modifications. More than half of them operated under the banner of "Aeroflot". The rest of the Air Force in the USSR and abroad. And in the Soviet Air Force operated not only for the educational training of pilots and navigators, but the passenger Tu-124 (for example, in the 8th Adon). In the second half of 1970, in accordance with the decision of the XXV Congress of the CPSU, the continued updating of the planned fleet. Fell into the category of obsolete and Tu-124. Of these, as far as I know, crashed only one side of 45 044. It happened December 23, 1973-th. Served longer than all the Tu-124SH, copies of which the last was removed from service in the late 1970s and 1980s.

Aircraft performance
3 persons.
Cruising speed 
840 km/h
Range with maximum payload
1600 km.
Maximum range with a load of 3000 kg. 
2100 km.
The maximum takeoff weight
38000 kg.
Maximum payload 
6000 kg.
Number of passengers 
56 persons
Traction motors 
2*5400 kg.

Aircraft Tu-22

Created in the Yakovlev Design Bureau. Tupolev. Year 1957.

Tu-22 (NATO: Blinder) - Soviet long-range supersonic bomber Tupolev design, intended to replace the Tu-16.

The Tu-22 was designed as a replacement for the Tu-16 bomber. Detailed design of TU-22 (the project "105") Tupolev beginning August 15, 1955, and by August 1957, construction was completed the first prototype of the airframe. By the summer of 1958 a prototype engines were installed and started static testing.June 21, 1958 the aircraft, "105" (crew test pilot T. Bight) made its first flight.

Since 1957, parallel with the development of the project "105", work began on the second prototype - "105A." In this machine supposed to significant changes in terms of aerodynamics (used in the design of the "rule space"). It is the prototype, and later became the TU-22.

Serial production of the Tu-22 was not until December 1969. There were produced 311 aircraft of this type (in versions Tu-Tu-22A, and 22B, the Tu-22R reconnaissance, missile carrier Tu-22K, jammer Tu-22P, and training aircraft Tu-22U, more than half of them were equipped with a barbell refueling system according to the "tube-cone" of the 3MS-2 aircraft and the Tu-16N and the designation was Tu-22RD, Tu-22KD, 22PD, and Tu-Tu-22UD, respectively).

Tu-22 was the most alert aircraft of the Soviet Air Force. Just broke up in 1975 about 70 vehicles (20% of the total built).

The last Tu-22 was retired Air Force and the Russian Navy in the 1990s.

Aircraft Tu-114

One of the undoubted achievements of the Khrushchev "thaw" - a new jet civil aviation of the country. And the speed and comfort were now owned by any citizen of the USSR, not just the elected authorities. And even if the ticket price, close to the cost of travel in the sleeping car express train.

In addition, in the late 1950s as a result of the enormous interest around the world, including capitalism, the processes taking place in Russia, greatly expanded and strengthened international ties of the USSR. That, and the last in the 1957 World Festival of Youth and Students in Moscow stimulated the question of the establishment in our country a developed system of international air services, including transcontinental.

Tu-104 and IL-18 were good for it only in part: they could not fly over the ocean, not suitable for long-distance non-stop flights, and had a relatively small (89-100) seating.

Back in March 1955 was granted a government job on the design of long-haul passenger aircraft. For large flights needed was not just a powerful, economical and roomy, but very reliable liner, with exhaust systems, engines and airframe.Moreover, the government demanded a long-range passenger (he, of course, and landing) aircraft as soon as possible, do not allow for many tests and improvements. Coverage of the world's attention to the Soviet planned to carry out without delay ...

As always, the pioneers began to Tupolev. Already having the experience of remaking the military to a civilian aircraft (Tu-16 - Tu-104), Tupolev immediately chose a prototype of a new car - well proven bomber Tu-95.

Today, often expressed doubts about the fidelity of the method of designing a commercial aircraft. They say that once the car had to be done "for the people" as a Boeing 707 or DC-8, a comfortable and secure, especially the Civil War.

These days, when the accumulated vast experience in building civilian aircraft, so it is easy to speculate. But then - wait for it - no one knew exactly what it is: a passenger aircraft with turbine engines. How to do it? By what standards? In accordance with the practice of any use? Everything happened the first time.

In the specific example of the new (then) Tupolev project even the most scrupulous, "from zero", flight testing is still not freed from the sea would be problems in the subsequent operation with passengers on board. The only way to guarantee that time reduce the number of such problems - is the maximum utilization of aircraft design elements, the tested for at least several years. A materiel that can withstand high speeds, as well as turboprop engines, while there have been only in military aviation. So Tupolev path is not only true, but, given the compactness of the set of design time, only possible at that time. In the 707, too, initially designed as a tanker.
A new project on the Tupolev firm has received the designation "114". So he remained in aviation history by becoming the serial aircraft.

Tu-114 made very quickly - in just two years. It has been a leading designer N.I.Bazenkov. November 15, 1957 test pilot A.P.Yakimov first raised the Tu-114 in the air, and began flight tests. Lead test engineer from OKB was Ter-Akopian, State Research Institute of the CAF, AB Ivanov, and other State V.G.Deloveri flight testing was carried out as test pilots, IK Vedernikov and I.M.Suhomlin.

It would seem - to increase the diameter of the fuselage, the thinned-scuttles Arrange chairs - and ready to ship. But how many problems posed in front of the new aircraft designers, to create machines that played best in the world in a "weight class"!

One of the key - ensuring reliable and efficient air-cabin air conditioning unusually large space for many hours of flight. After being born, in fact, the world's first jumbo jet - distant ancestor of the current IL-86, A-340 or B 767. The fundamental difference with Airbus today only in the fact that the Tu-114 - narrow-body aircraft.

Before Tupolev no one knew how would feel in certain circumstances 170 people in a narrow tube length of 54 meters at an altitude of 11 kilometers. Was also an extremely complex problem of strength and durability of pressurized fuselage.Sound attenuation is not easy and was given in the cabin, taking into account the tremendous power of the NK-12MV engines ND Kuznetsov design.

All these problems were successfully solved - partly because all the creative energy of designers focused mainly on them, being free of the most pressing problems in the aviaproektirovanii airframe, landing gear, tail, engines and other global issues that are before the Tu-114 has already been solved Tu-95.Refinement of the wing on the Tu-114 in comparison with Tu-95 are negligible.More significant changes, for obvious reasons, was subjected to the fuselage.

According to the recollections of veterans, relationship with the TU-95-m was shown on the first Tu-114 to curiosities. For example, such details: in the beginning did not provide clothing for the crew (military pilots so that's that, but just do not need a wardrobe). I had to eliminate one toilet in the nose and make clothes instead. Baggage of passengers at first supposed to load up the side, but ... from the bottom up - like a bomb in bombolyuk. All the tables that stood between the seats in first-class cabin, were firmly bolted to the side (just in case?), And because of this very loud and vibrated. They had to be disconnected.Reasons for the location of the navigator and his equipment in the nose with an overview of the glazed lantern over the front, too, is understandable - the Tu-95 navigator in the bombing should be seen in front of goal (IL-18, the car was initially civil, space navigator is already inside the cockpit). And so forth.

Still turned out entirely civilian aircraft, and as it turned out, excellent. The reason is not only the will and the universal authority of the AN Tupolev, solves all the issues most important to create the Tu-114 directly to Nikita Khrushchev, not only elevated the creative work of the then Bureau of engineers and test pilots, but also that from the beginning to the improvement of aircraft were involved in the pilots of "Aeroflot" ( Not to mention the fact that the military navigators trained in flight on the Tu-16 and Tu-114 for precise navigation for pilots is "Aeroflot").
Their comments are listened to without any design arrogance. Near the Tupolev has always been a stenographer, record all verbal requests lineyschikov pilots.Problems are resolved quickly, without delay or red tape, so hated by Tupolev.Each quarter, were flight-technical conference in conjunction with test pilots and specialists of OKB. Refer to the Tupolev unceremoniously could any of the pilots, invited to a specially created to Vnukovo for operational testing of Tu-114 206 First Flight Detachment. By the way, took place only Muscovites, but flying the Tu-104 and only to the first class. Retraining on the Tu-114 took place in Kuibyshev.

It is a pity that in the later years of the pilots view of "Aeroflot" for field trials of other aircraft are increasingly neglected, and the office staff, and the State Research Institute of Civil Aviation, and the only obvious defects, and even worse catastrophe, designers were forced to listen to the advice of those who know the feeling responsibility for the lives entrusted to them ... In the era of the Tu-114 aeroflotovtsev opinion, as well as the leadership of this organization, it was still very significant.

Thus, the Tu-114 was created in an atmosphere of creative enthusiasm. The largest contribution to the improvement of aircraft pilots have "Aeroflot" K.P.Sapelkin, A.K.Vitkovsky, H.N.Tshovrebov etc.

Despite the huge amount of tests verified the design allowed the foundations to quickly organize a "bride" of the aircraft. The first demonstration flight to New York by plane number L-5611 is already committed in 1958 (and in the stunned New York, there was not a suitable ladder or truck), and May 19, 1959 the crew A.P.Yakimova, MA . Nyuhtikova, I.K.Vedernikova involving K.P.Sapelkina made its first demonstration flight to Khabarovsk with passengers on board. The flight was a non-profit: the passengers were, along with journalists, mostly aviation specialists.

It was the first flight in the history of civil aviation in this range with a speed of flight.Taking off from Vnukovo held at 18 h 18 min. In a way the weather is not spoiled - met two cyclone, 3 cold front, overcast on the highway. Landing in Khabarovsk in 3 hours, 00 minutes, return flight 10 hours 44 minutes, and landing at Vnukovo is 20 h 52 min. Total covered 13,500 miles in 18 hours 50 minutes.

Reliability of the aircraft was so high that in 1959 it was also carried out an unprecedented action, in my opinion, unparalleled in the history of aviation on the plane, field trials which have not yet been completed, the government moved the USSR, headed by NS . Khrushchev in Washington.

Advocacy might Tu-114 has eclipsed even the effect of the Tu-104.Unprecedented dimensions, powerful deep voice coaxial propellers, wingspan of a grand, tall nose landing gear and generally expressed in external power struck imagination. A huge number of

top awards world-class, who received the plane and its creators, 32 world records set on it, accompanied by the triumphant introduction of Tu-114 with the globe.
Veteran of the domestic aviation Hariton N. Tskhovrebov, one of the first pilots in the country honored the Soviet Union, has made for the Tu-114 is hardly as much as the creators of the machine, says the aircraft was demonstrated at the airport in Brazil Campinas (Sao Paulo). Queue length reached 2 km, show itself lasted a week. One came from far away and the gray-bearded old men were asked to familiarize them with the commander. They were the Latvians, who emigrated in 1940. Old men wept bitterly regretting that left the country, dobivshuyusya so much success ...

Indeed, the design of the Tu-114 contains a lot of unique. We specify that Two deck design (layout of the fuselage: the bottom of the kitchen, cargo and baggage at the top - the crew and passengers), which became the core for the design of modern jumbo jet, was introduced on the Tu-114. It is interesting that the kitchen was connected to the elevator buffet, as IL-86. The staffing of the crew, as well as the Tu-104, the first half of the 60s was the cook.

Controlled stabilizer was also a new thing. The plane was tugovat in the management of stress on the wheel, piloting the pilot "had to eat well before the flight," but the pilots quickly adapted to it, and cases of accidents on the defect management was not.

Do not have a unique and coaxial screws AB-60 K.Zhdanova design, development and refinement which was carried out in cooperation with TsAGI and CIAM. V.G.Deloveri wrote, was "achieved an efficiency of the propeller to the flight speeds of over 800 km / h, found the ability to create large braking forces on the propeller and its automatic feathering." The true speed of 850 km / h is really unique to the aircraft with turboprop. No wonder the early years of the Tu-114 flights across the Atlantic, Americans often attach thereto their fighters, to make sure that the plane actually flies with a true speed.

In general, the combination of a swept wing with a theater manifested itself, even by today's standards, brilliant: reached a very high speed combined with an incredible aircraft for such a mass economy (consumption reached approximately 5600 kg in the first hour, and 4000-4400 kg in the following). In the IL-62M average cruising consumption of up to 7 tons per hour.

Power available at a total engine power of 60,000 hp was sufficient to secure the continuation rise in the standard conditions with limiting takeoff weight of 173.5 m with a failed engine speed, after making a decision. In any case, when a reduction in Domodedovo D.I.Kuharenko caused by a flight engineer with a failed engine was accidentally turned off the second at the same polukryle, the power of the other two and, of course, courageous commander composure enough for you to safely land the seemingly hopeless car. H.N.Tshovrebovu once had to distill the Tu-114 on three engines from New Delhi on ... Himalayas!

From the start of operational testing during regular starts in Zhukovsky was developed by a specific regulation of the crew in case of engine failure on takeoff.The exception was the takeoff starts with more than 174 tons macsoy on the Tu-114D, intended to fly to Havana. In this situation, take-off distance in case of engine failure at ambient temperature +25 ° C or more greater than 4 km. Where this is finally clear in Zhukovsky, pilots and engineers looked at each other in the eye and said, "Let us hope that out in Havana just did not happen ..." The huge wingspan and a broad base of the chassis required to operate the aircraft on the ground with a bandwidth of at least 80 meters. Length required for the Tu-114 was taken not less than 3500 meters. This did not prevent such aces as, for example, H.N.Tshovrebov, landing during the demonstration flight of Tu-114 short-and long narrow strips just 3200 meters and take off with them! For example, at the airport of Brasilia, to the same mountain (NAER - 1000 m). Veteran recalls: "It is my decision was made to fit the maximum allowable tailwind of 5 m / s, and not a counter, as is usually done. This was necessary in order to be able to release the band after landing, as the only one - in the opposite of the situation - the end of the runway taxiway had to release it (on most turn lane was not possible because of the small band width of 45 meters). Otherwise, our "Tu" is set to trucks at least five hours with the closure of the airport. Manager for a long time did not permit landing with the wind, asking questions, and I'm not to embark on a long explanation of landing such a course, simply took full responsibility. Of course, it was difficult, Automatic translating long screws into the mode of inhibition due to high real rate in a high but then, when the rate was asleep on the run, they finally withdrew from the way I was able to use the wheel brakes and we stopped at the runway within fifty meters from the end. As I sat down with the wind, so that there was no talking and no doubt the press on the part of the quality of my landing, I requested a car maintenance, while still on the runway. fact that prior to our arrival a week newspaper wrote that the huge Russian aircraft never landed on the bar so high. "
Excitement and foreign and Soviet press about the Tu-114 is clear. Non-stop flight over long distances while in the 50s, was seen as a miracle. After the piston, "Douglas" and IL-12, migrating slightly faster than an express train with a dozen intermediate landings, 9:00 on the Tu-114 to Khabarovsk is a something cosmic.Cabin first Tu-114 was performed without the influence of interior compartment cars of long-distance trains and ocean liners sea. Therefore, in the comfort of Tu-114 appeared to ordinary Soviet man of the time (not spoiled facilities) are also somehow transcendent. Tu-114 - it is really a kind of social revolution, the rise of social consciousness. And, of course, the most powerful weapon of propaganda - in fact, was something to be proud, do not say anything.

It was a plane with three classes of layout: economy class (standard seat 3 +3), the first class (rows of seats separated by tables with a lamp), and finally, with four compartments - these compartments, as in the train, but the 3 berths with two transverse and one longitudinal shelves.

Plane tickets were worth, respectively, to the class, though with a slight difference.I draw the reader's attention to the fact that there are mnogoklassny principle focus on differentiated demand, has now one championship in the airline business. Providing options passenger was absolutely true, but, unfortunately, followed in 1960-1970-ies val transport of "Aeroflot", exceeding all conceivable projections, long consigned to oblivion on our domestic routes any other arrangement, other than economy class. Maximum capacity of the Tu-114 reached 224 seats. It was at that time the most spacious Airliner "Aeroflot".Coupe and tables with lamps on the recommendation of SRI CAF is removed in order to increase capacity.

Let me digress a little. I'm sorry coupe disappeared on the Tu-114. Think about it: 8-13 hours in the sky - it's like night and in a short train. Passengers of the Tu-114, after sitting in the compartment at a table at the window of the first hour of the flight, get down pillow, blanket and sheet and go to bed. If the aircraft was equipped with a fully convertible, the entire length of the fuselage, it would be a unique example of comfort. Of course, from an economic point of view of all this criticism does not stand up, just a bit too cozy feel sorry for ... We specify that in the West today, very often used on transcontinental routes first and luxury class with individual seating, folding as sofas.

In the comfort of passengers the impression of Tu-114 spoiled rich low-frequency noise, which was particularly strong in the area of ​​the screws in the back of the first class. In the opinion of some seasoned passengers, he supposedly transferred a little easier than the IL-18 because it was not so pervasive. Once again - after a piston aircraft such things seem trifles. Tu-114 began to lose "image" of the passengers only with the advent of low-noise circuits on distant IL-62 when it was nothing to compare.

But the stability of the aircraft in severe turbulence, on the contrary, greatly increased the comfort of passengers. With a very strong (steel spars!) And yet flexible structure (amplitude of the wing, plus or minus 2 meters of the ending), Tu-114 is great, even endured severe turbulence. It was indispensable to the quality when you fly across the ocean during tropical storms and cyclones, or when crossing mountain ranges like the Himalayas.

Total in Kuibyshev (Samara) factory © 1957-1964 18's, lots of three to six cars a year, was built 31 production aircraft Tu-114 (the prototype was built in 1957 at a factory in Moscow © 156), including the Tu -114D.

From the series was killed in an accident Sheremetyevo and the other, almost before he could fly, broke in half in the parking lot at Vnukovo error flight engineer, who began to remove the chassis from the compacted posts. The fuselage of the aircraft at Vnukovo long lay close to the UTO ...

The first scheduled passenger flight to Khabarovsk was carried out from Vnukovo April 24, 1961, and the crews H.N.Tshovrebova P.V.Soldatova.

In the annals of aviation special place occupied airliners Tu-114 flights to Havana, which had no analogues in the world of aviation practice.

They were preceded by technical, and then regular flights to Khabarovsk, and flying at a distance. A huge role in the development of long-distance non-stop routes and methods of implementation of long-distance navigation has played the chief navigator of Detachment 206 Nicholas Fil-lipovich Nosov.

It is also important was the fact that almost all the pilots of Detachment 206 passed rigorous military school in transport aircraft and, thus, perfectly possessed of all the then modes of orientation.

Originally scheduled flights to Khabarovsk performed by Kazan, Krasnoyarsk, Sverdlovsk-Nizhneudinsk Balaganski-Chita-Magdagachi. Time of flight came back to 10, then - up to 11 hours. This is a very tired crew and did not meet sanitary standards of working time. Then the route was through the spryamlen Serov-Tobolsk-Yeniseisk, and after a Serov, Stony Tunguska-Ki-Rennes. Thus, the flight time was reduced to 8-9 hours. Filling in the Khabarovsk was 54-58 m

Very often, the flight to Khabarovsk was accompanied by a powerful jet stream from west to east in the latitudes of the road. Ground speed at the same time reached 1170 km / h, but on the way back had to turn away to the South to get away from the mighty reservoir of headwind. Observations on the fuel consumption under these conditions is very useful when flying in Havana.

Direct Flights to Havana was created 60-seat Tu-114D with a takeoff weight of 184 tons, which had additional tanks with a capacity of 15 tons, and allowed the fuel to fill 16 hours of flight. In addition, these aircraft were equipped astrosekstantami. These machines had two.

July 10, 1962 with two interchangeable crews A.K.Vitkovsko th and was completed H.N.Tshovrebova Havana flight with a stopover in Conakry (New Guinea) at the airport, built by Soviet specialists. The flight lasted 21 hours, 16 minutes. After the departure from Conakry error forecaster plane crashed into powerful turbulence, and here that showed the power of his "muscles", perfectly resist rough air. The situation initially appeared to be so complex that was in the cabin of the chief CAB CAF E.F.Loginov repeated aloud each team, which gave the pilots the navigator. Before landing in Havana, the crew was asked to do three laps over the airfield to show a crowd of thousands of Cubans aircraft in flight. But then the captain saw a powerful cumulonimbus cluster in the terminal area, showed his E.F.Loginovu and said that you should immediately sit down, for after falling into a "heap" does not expect anything good, and fuel to the alternate care after These three circles are not enough. To persuade the minister had not reported to the dispatcher that will make only one round, made him and began to approach. At the height of the beginning of the alignment downpour struck with such force that the band completely disappeared from sight. However, the aircraft was well balanced, and sat down gently, but after driving 12 minutes standing on the runway, waiting for rain subsides, because nothing could be seen ...
It would seem that the problem of regular flights with passengers to Cuba, which was in the U.S. blockade has been resolved. However, Khrushchev's plans disrupted President of New Guinea, which literally bought the Americans who sought at all costs to disrupt the Russian flights to Cuba. By putting forward a formal explanation of what the airport in Conakry can not take the aircraft from take-off mass of over 150 tons, the government of New Guinea, in fact, kicked them with the same Russian built airfield. After Conakry completed all four flights a week, then four flight was arranged through Dakar (Senegal), which has banned flights to the rationale of "Russian carry weapons." After that met 3 times in Algeria, but they quickly found some obstacles, and that Africa is the continent ceased to be an intermediate in the Tu-114 flights to Cuba. It was necessary to urgently seek a different route, since it appeared that the Soviet Union is unable to fulfill an agreement with Cuba to organize regular flights to Moscow, what were once trumpet Western newspapers.

Nothing to do but to fly across the Arctic Ocean and the Atlantic in international waters. Calculations showed that if an intermediate landing for refueling in Murmansk fuel from there to Havana should be enough. As it turned out later, it turned out not always. The length of the track reached 10 900 km.

Flights to Havana flights preceded the North at a distance to Khabarovsk and back, during which observations were made of atmospheric phenomena, mode of flight and engine behavior, selected the most economical options. In mid-December 1962, a week before the first technical flight via Murmansk, with the assistance of a test pilot I.M.Suhomlina was carried out non-stop flight from Moscow to Gorky, Kirov-Serov-Sub-mennaya length of about 13 000 km. Contrary to the calculation, the flight lasted 16 hours, 15 minutes and 15 hours 50 minutes thanks to a tailwind. Before the flight, the aircraft weighed, drove for three racks of weights. Take-off weight was 184 tons, plus about a ton on the taxiing - Havana standards.

December 22, 1962, and the crews V.A.Filonova N.I.Grunenysheva led H.N.Tshovrebova took a course from the new airport Sheremetyevo to Murmansk.After a four-hour parking for refueling took off from there to Havana.

The strongest headwind on the route at times reduced the ground speed up to ...460 km / h - wind speed was 380-390 km / h! Over 16 hours have not come across a single ship in the ocean. The plane went off the busiest corners of the sea, always above water. In Havana, was characteristic of a tropical downpour.Nothing to do but sit in these weather conditions, and this was done. Of fuel per flight hour left, but the world press reported that two.

It was a unique mission. His route passed over the northern coast of Finland, Norway, England, then through the beam of Reykjavik, South Greenland, Gander beam, beam of New York, Varadero. Later in the performance of scheduled flights, it has not changed.

The flight was carried out on an "across the ceiling." As the production of fuel could gain a higher and therefore more efficient train that included a thorough calculation of the flight, and then execute it without it would be impossible - would not have enough fuel. A related interesting features of the first flight.

The Americans did not believe that this flight will be successfully accomplished, and only when the plane passed beam Reykjavik (Iceland), they finally came around and finally realized that the Russian guys really continue to fly without landing and have a very good chance to be in Havana. After that, the Americans began a stubborn obstruction. In particular, the crew received information from the Icelandic manager that Americans will demand fall for 1500 meters. Such a reduction would lead to excessive fuel consumption and the failure of the flight.H.N.Tshovrebov asked to resolve in the region of Iceland on its flight echelon, and the Americans, he said, was intended to "arrange itself." A similar situation occurred in Greenland and Canada, where managers politely did not object to flying in their area on the echelon occupied by the crew, or at least making the fuel is higher, but warned the crew about the intentions of Americans (Canadian Manager is not without laughter audible in the phones pilots) . Finally came to the States. Initially, manager of New York adopted the report of the crew of the entrance to the zone occupied by tier, and confirmed the authorization to continue the flight, but a couple of minutes later demanded the fall of 1500 meters, referring to the fact that the area has three "wings" (three groups of military aircraft). To this the commander of the Tu-114 indicated that there were no planes on a clear day it is in an absolutely clear sky can not see, and what time his flight-plan has been adopted by the dispatcher at the entrance to the zone of the United States, the flight level change, he does not intend to. If any aircraft in the area and there, he said the dispatcher, so remove them and make sure my flight in accordance with our proven flight-plan. Americans had to accept, and abeam Miami height reached about 12,000 feet. Only through such an insistence H.N.Tshovrebova flight was successfully completed in Havana, and not somewhere on a random alternate airport. However, two weeks later, Americans still sent to the CAB CAF pilot's complaint for failure to fulfill team manager ...

Abeam of Miami seemed suddenly two fighters from Florida. They recorded the altitude and speed of the Tu-114, after which one of them, piloted by a black man approached from behind on the right and "pushed" a sharp nose, his fighter between ... golden rings rotating with a frequency of 736 rev / min screws Tu-114!The co-pilot D.I.Kuharenko, who was at that moment in the cabin, grabbed his camera and movie camera Quartz-3 and began to take off (after landing photos and film taken away from him politely, people in civilian clothes "for the training of our pilots aerobatics"). By order of the flight commander, flight immediately contacted the manager and complain about the behavior of Americans. Manager gave the corresponding command, and the fighters retreated as suddenly in afterburner in the party, as well as come - but, however, accompanied by our aircraft, built on a little way off, until Cuba.

So it was not easy was this flight ...

In Havana, the crew and the aircraft has been arranged warm welcome. The crew was accompanied by Secretary of the third person of the Soviet Embassy. Pilots were settled in the upscale 32-storey hotel-American heritage. At present the Soviet representatives in Cuba was brought alive Russian Tree ...

Now, faced the problem of take-off from Havana with a maximum takeoff weight.The fact that the alignment of the runway were ground obstacles - high-voltage wires and poles. Even with the rise in temperature, outside air to 25 ° C (above this temperature rise was generally discouraged by the length of the strip - the fact that the Tu-114 was equipped with a so-called ACT - command-and-fuel machine that regulates the quality and quantity of the mixture of fuel and air supplied to the engine. This unique unit, performing 17 operations simultaneously without human intervention, automatically adjusts the engine power as a function of t, taking into account the outside air mode, the specified flight engineer. CTA reduced the engine power when the temperature exceeded 25 "C, and then mode of operation can not increase it) could not manage to avoid the dangerous proximity of an obstacle. "Science" depressed, but found a way out of the pilot H.N.Tshovrebov. His decision can safely be called a genius.

Tskhovrebov took off and passed over an obstacle, to the surprise of all, at an altitude of more than 50 meters (estimated theoretical yield of about 6-9 meters ... that confirmed the very first test flight). "Science," said that this can not be that it was an accident. Tskhovrebov repeated a second time off and went over the obstacle is higher than 60 meters. Demanded an explanation and got them.

The fact that immediately after takeoff at an altitude of not less than 5 meters were supposed to begin to remove the chassis. This would seem quite logical, since the cleaning gear reduces drag. But the peculiarity of the Tu-114 is that the landing gear of the aircraft have a huge amount, and the very extensive linkage chassis with a maximum harvest area facing the flow. When the doors open the chassis, and the aircraft is to climb at an increased angle of attack, air tanks are filled with niches, in which a vortex is formed, and the resistance is greatly increased, not decreased. All this reduced the rate of climb when cleaning the chassis up to 1 m / sec. Tskhovrebov take into account all of it. And his decision was simple: do not remove the chassis to the passage of the obstacle. At the same climb after the separation was 5-6 m / sec.
After the trial take-off from Havana with a limiting takeoff weight of the crew had to fly over Cuba in order to develop 36 tons of fuel to generate acceptable landing weight. Cuba obletyvali around the perimeter of the entire length of its coastline.Pour kerosene banned for environmental reasons.

After a series of "fact-finding" missions and solve all the problems was considered possible to operate regular passenger flights from Moscow to Havana via Murmansk. The crew of 28 December 1962, New Year's Eve, flew back. Each crew member was presented with a basket of fruit and vegetable gifts of Cuba, a bottle of Soviet champagne. From somewhere in the embassy knew that one of the pilots discussed the problem of delivery in Moscow daughter to school cane, and brought the plant to the plane. Reed with a custom tag flew to Russia ...

Weather was favorable, the wind this time was incidental, and Murmansk have been non-stop, despite the desperate invocation of the head of filling left over there and dreaming to get to New Year's table home. By decision of the flight commander, flight, taken back in Havana, to the surprise of journalists and "specialists", the flight originally was supposed to be non-stop.

Based on the successful technical flight is January 7, 1963 was the first regular flight to Havana © 047 with passengers on board. He was on a Tu-114D 76480 © fulfilled crews and commanders of the ship N.I.Grunenysheva N.I.Toritsyna led A.K.Vitkovskogo.

Targeting was carried out over the ocean, mainly in celestial navigation.Sometimes using the so-called fan beacons. The essence of this lighthouse was that the sound of Morse code on the two letters gave some direction to the lighthouse at imposing a navigator on a special card mosaic.

At a distance of 800 km coastal beacons were heard. First widely used services of supervisory control of Europe and the U.S., but then came a bill for services that go with them to the relationship is not particularly recommended. Sometimes, when managers intentionally gave the wrong coordinates of the aircraft, and sometimes during the flight of the Tu-114 specifically switched off the coast lighthouses or lightships in the ocean, trying to force the crew to resort to paid services.

It is hardly necessary to dwell on particularly how severe climatic conditions of flight in the Atlantic. Magnetic storms, temperature changes, cyclones and tropical storms ... Sometimes the fuel before Havana is still lacking because of the unimaginable headwinds throughout the route, and then had to make technical landing at ... American airbase in Nassau in the Bahamas, where, however, the meeting turned out very friendly, the plane refueled and released. The commander of paying for the service of dollars in cash, which he issued in case of technical landing. Paying for fuel coupons firm "Shell", with which "Aeroflot" was an agreement, under which the payment of the sum of coupons increased by 5%.Take off, landing and maintenance bond worth at the time $ 310. On Sunday the amount was doubled.

Often in the cockpit of the Tu-114 proved to navigators trainees ADD, and the first echelon above the halfway point to the return of the car was accompanied, like a satellite, Tu-95 - "big brother". For long-range bombers and reconnaissance aircraft pilots experience in the civil was not at all little importance. By Tu-114 th flight modes were verified, corrected navigation, etc.

The route of flight, with rare exceptions, gross deviations of up to 200 km due to weather conditions, usually maintained accurately. But in general, as they say veterans - "flying and everything." On the flight, almost entirely over water just looked like life rafts and vests on board.

It is clear that, going to school Havana flight, it was relatively easy to build on the Tu-114 non-stop direct flights to Montreal, New York, Beijing, Delhi, Ghana, Accra, Tokyo.

We can not tell that to the Tu-114 is connected to the phenomenon of the Soviet era unique - a joint operation with the capitalist Airlines airline.

In 1967 the question arose about the organization of regular flights to Tokyo. This became possible after the discovery of radio equipment equipped Trans airway through Russia - the shortest way from Europe to China, Japan, South-East Asia.Airline "Jal" together with "Aeroflot" open non-stop flight to Tokyo on a Tu-114.

For this was converted two cars - 76,464 and 76,470. 464-I was most fortunate general of the Tu-114-x: it is set on a pedestal at Domodedovo - though the standard is already coloring the 1970s.

In agreement with the Japanese, the two aircraft were rearranged (the bow) in the first version of the economic class +. Each machine had a total capacity of 105 seats. The flight served together Japanese and Soviet flight attendants have received special training. Planes were outside the symbolism as "Aeroflot" and "Jal".

And there has not been without a complicated navigation problems. At the airport, Haneda were extremely harsh conditions call from one of the courses. This was attributed to the fact that the Japanese are totally forbidden to fly over Tokyo, and the scheme had to turn the "butt". Preliminary calculations showed that the Tu-114 can not fit into such a rigid scheme of call. Minister of Civil Aviation E.F.Loginov H.N.Tshovrebovu personally appealed to the proposal to look out of this problem, especially since the implementation of such a voyage was extremely tempting from a political point of view.

Based on careful calculations H.N.Tshovrebov proposed the following variant, which was approved: after passing abeam runway flight with a stopwatch certain number of seconds, and then, on the beam long drive, release the flaps to 20 degrees and execute a turn coupled to an altitude of 300 meters on the planting rate of decline. Out of this turn radius of 2.8 km at an altitude of 150 meters took place at a distance of only 2 kilometers from the band, then the reduction was carried out pre-release of the flap is fully and finally landing. Sunset was essentially visual.

H.N.Tshovrebov specifically ottreniroval flight, including the command-guidance, the composition in terms of the flight to Tokyo, with a record book in the flight. This is not just led to a curious situation where Haneda airport in bad weather, Japanese DC-8 and "Boeing" could not be the first approach to land on his own course from the city airport and went to the second round, and a huge Tu-114 sat on the first try as if nothing had happened.

Similar difficulties must be overcome, and when you exit the terminal area. Lapel had to be performed immediately after take-off at extremely low for this type of aircraft altitude and speed. Here, the calculations were so successful H.N.Tshovrebova that the Tupolev and then, when able to convince the Japanese in the safety of such flights and air services agreement was signed, personally thanked the pilot for the help introduce the world of flight. The point was that it was thanks to calculations pilot managed to sign a contract with the Japanese on the exploitation of the Moscow-Tokyo, and then became the most profitable in the "Aeroflot".

The first passenger flight to Tokyo was made crew H.N.Tshovrebova 17-18 April 1967.

The brilliant career of the aircraft was determined by high professionalism of pilots and engineering staff, which was held from today's point of view, enviably organized training. Very important was the confidence in the flight test composition that, history shows operation of the aircraft, it was decisive. For such applications, such as the Tu-114, the human factor is very significant. The car is reliable, but depends on the crew, almost all - handmade, so to speak. Well said about this H.N.Tshovrebov "Stradivarius violin in the hands of Vladimir Spivakov - a Stradivarius violin, and in unskilled hands - nothing."

Many testers, pilots and engineers to put into operation the Tu-114, received the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, Honored Pilot of the USSR. And deservedly so.

Unfortunately, the biography of Tu-114 is present, however, the tragic fact to which the aircraft design, however, is irrelevant. This is a disaster that took place at Sheremetyevo February 17, 1966 - the only crash of Tu-114. I would say it is typical of the Soviet disaster.

The aircraft had to perform a flight to Brazzaville (Congo) in Africa, where it was planned to carry acceptance of a delegation to the airfield. Weather is not favorable for a few days - to carry the storm Sheremetievskiy band visibility due to fog, find waves was extremely limited. However, political ambition and desire to the big bosses to save the honor of the uniform industry led to the dismissal of the commander V.A.Filonova decision to depart, and thus contributed to the accident.

Victor Arturovich Filonov - a man who left on a very good memory. Without exception, people who knew him speak of him as a remarkable man - high personal culture, responsive, great noble souls do not courageous show, but in practice. The pilot of God. At the initiative of H.N.Tshovrebova he still was transferred from the State Research Institute at Sheremetyevo CAF, in the 210th unit, which primarily "through the political officer," prevented the Swedish origin of the father V.A.Filonova (just kind of phantasmagoria, is not it it?), and flew flawlessly. No wonder he was entrusted to carry out the command of this flight to Brazzaville.

Just before the flight indicating administrative leadership TU MVL V.F.Bashkirovym general, who headed the delegation, changed the composition of the flight crew: it was introduced by the inspection head of transport department CAB CAF Yu.K.Valerius - instead of the deputy commander of the 210th Detachment A . N.Tshovrebova.

Due to the deteriorating weather JK Valerius tried to cancel the flight, but could not. The fact is that for some time before the dispute, the radio announced their departure. Valerius then realized that the flight is not canceled, he left the plane (although it could), but remained with the crew! He was keenly aware of the consequences, because spent the entire war in the sky and went flying after it.(For a description of this episode is based on the recollections of his granddaughter JK Valerius - O.M.Filchevoy).

The band was cleared, but not across the entire width and 40 meters. As a result of snow blowers on the edges of the runway snow-formed breastworks, very difficult visibility of lights from the cockpit. Thus, the pilot could withstand the direction of the run (and was carried off at night) almost exclusively on share unit.V.A.Filonov to directly start the run could not know or even imagine.

After the start of the run, when it became clear that the runway lights are barely visible (light up), break off it was too late. V.A.Filonov masterful direction of the stand strictly on the runway for one direction only navigational instrument - as shown by subsequent measurements, the deviation was less than a degree, that is just at the limits of the pilot. Only at the end of the takeoff strip still poor preparation played a fateful role - left truck chassis is brushed on the isolation of one of the parapets of snow, which caused a strong cast of the aircraft left the sinking of the nose. The pilot, fending off, given the right bank, screws, third and fourth engine was hit on the cover strip and collided with the earth, leading to complete destruction ... Killed many of the passengers and crew members, including commander V.A.Filonov. Some, including V.F.Bashkirova, was lucky to survive for one reason or another, especially located in the tail of the plane.

Produced by the investigation revealed that the training pilots to fly a Tu-114 was conducted in the unit at the perfect level training program even surpassed the recommended amount. There is no doubt a professional, as well as human V.A.Filonova reputation. The disaster was triggered by interference from senior management of the crew, as well as poor training of the band terrestrial services.However, for obvious reasons, it was hushed up, and so far about this tragic history, few people know.

Command-and-control style of management industry, very often leads to such incidents, was, incidentally, is the main cause of early cancellation of the Tu-114 flight operations.

After reaching the international route of IL-62, Tu-114, losing the status of the leader of "Aeroflot", all the fleet were converted from Sheremetyevo to Domodedovo. There are 220-seat version of the regular flights to Alma-Ata, Tashkent, Novosibirsk and Khabarovsk, where there were long strips. The aircraft behaved as reliable as in the 1960s. Nickname "The Dragon" (Novosibirsk), or "Shaitan Arba" (Alma-Ata) were purely humorous, but not sarcastic. Occasionally there were cases of engine failure, not led to any serious consequences. There was a case of an emergency landing with faulty landing gear in Domodedovo, too, ended happily. However, after the majority of use of machines flying no more than 15 000 hours of all aircraft Tu-114 in November 1976 have been withdrawn from service and decommissioned no later than summer 1977.
These days, when the balance each and every ton of kerosene aircraft, regardless of age, is the depletion of very economical and reliable aircraft is complete anomaly. In what was the matter?

Old pilots say that the plane "did not like the" top officials of Ministry of Civil Aviation - t.t.Bugaev and Mamsurov. It seems that "not like" - a word for some lyrical and emotional matters, but not for the aviation economy. Indeed, in this era of huge jet aircraft bolts were not particularly honored. Passenger comfort, noise in the cabin and on the ground, technology repair the aircraft, its flight speed, simplicity to the airfields is increasingly becoming the defining concepts in aviation. We should not forget that the cost of the "Aeroflot" started talking seriously until the early 1980s, when the consumption of aviation fuel began to shake even the imagination of the leaders of the then cost-wasteful economy.Then remembered and the IL-18 and the Tu-114, but, as always, it was too late.

In the 1970s, was developed by modification of the Tu-114A, which, according to V.G.Deloveri, "provided a significant improvement in flying qualities of the machine by changing the profile and of the wing. Unfortunately, the Tu-114A was not implemented. Could not find application in practice and a number of planned improvements and improvements to the machine - they have not been showing interest. And those innovations that have struck the road, were born with great difficulty. " Needless to say - not pleasing to his superiors ...

The experience of the noise attenuation inside the Il-18 gained by the airline "Interflug," shows that this kind of increase the comfort of the passengers on the aircraft with the theater is not only real, but effective. After all, in fact, the noise in the cabin - it's the only serious drawback of Tu-114 in the area of ​​passenger comfort. Worse, of course, the situation had to deal with noise in the area, but no one raised the question of the return of the Tu-114 on international routes, where this criterion appears more attention (and sometimes, in my opinion even too high).

Like any economic plane, the Tu-114 provides a higher level of safety than his fellow jet, as was huge by today's standards, fuel for the alternate. For example, when calling in Khabarovsk commander of the Tu-114 at maximum landing weight has always had a balance of fuel for at least two and sometimes four (!) Hours of flight, depending on the wind on the highway. This alone quality of the machine should have been brought to his attention to the increased positive industry leaders. Until the appearance of IL-86 airbus aircraft Tu-114 airliner was the most capacious of "Aeroflot", again in his favor in terms of profitability, so in comparison with the IL-62M - exactly.

It is unlikely that the special requirements of the Tu-114 to the quality and availability of airfields broad long runway, the high separation speed and approach could be sufficient reason for their early removal from service. After all, safe to fly above airfields were established long ago, and further use for them the Tu-114 would not require any additional costs.

Worked flawlessly until the last days of materiel aircraft. Most of the reliability of its operation has been identified as a high quality of its design, public and service tests, and reliability of vital components design, including the engine, feathering the propeller system, reliability, KTA, strength airframe and landing gear.

In the last year of operation of the Tu-114 began to appear in the cracks of power dashboards engines. It's just complicated the main issue - ensuring safety.Outdated and screws. It was necessary to make emergency repairs. The panels were delivered to the ATB Domodedovo and lay in disarray on the shop floor, where not even really know what this all about. Experts have proposed to bring the engine to life theater NK12-MB up to 5000 hours, after appropriate revision. It turned out that the panel in the meantime pretty spoiled, and no interest in top leadership to extend the life of the aircraft there. So Tu-114 with large remnants of the heavenly life ceased their way ...

After removal from service was a question of their limited use as a landing aircraft. Tu-114 could carry, after replacing the chairs in the salon with special stores, 300 paratroopers. However, in this case chose not to bother - to completely abandon the aircraft, rather than to an extension of his work.

Let me, however, to refrain from clearly negative tone for early cancellation of the Tu-114. The upgrading of the wing and engine noise reduction, life extension, and production of spare parts would require large expenditures for the small number of series (29 aircraft 01.1977). In addition, from the point of view of the industry as a whole, management attention was focused primarily on the introduction of new aircraft (IL-86), can solve the problem of traffic according to modern requirements, the development of the airfield network, implementation of best global practices of civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), rather than prolonging life perfect, but the older aircraft, besides a very demanding to the runway and airfield maintenance.

But clearly both - if the passenger Tu-114 (with all the requirements and achievement of progress in aviation) in our days have probably not have been possible, for freight transport TU-114 and today, in an era of fuel shortages, would have been irreplaceable aircraft.
V.A.Filonov masterful direction of the stand strictly on the runway for one direction only navigational instrument - as shown by subsequent measurements, the deviation was less than a degree, that is just at the limits of the pilot. Only at the end of the takeoff strip still poor preparation played a fateful role - left truck chassis is brushed on the isolation of one of the parapets of snow, which caused a strong cast of the aircraft left the sinking of the nose. The pilot, fending off, given the right bank, screws, third and fourth engine was hit on the cover strip and collided with the earth, leading to complete destruction ... Killed many of the passengers and crew members, including commander V.A.Filonov. Some, including V.F.Bashkirova, was lucky to survive for one reason or another, especially located in the tail of the plane.

Produced by the investigation revealed that the training pilots to fly a Tu-114 was conducted in the unit at the perfect level training program even surpassed the recommended amount. There is no doubt a professional, as well as human V.A.Filonova reputation. The disaster was triggered by interference from senior management of the crew, as well as poor training of the band terrestrial services.However, for obvious reasons, it was hushed up, and so far about this tragic history, few people know.

Command-and-control style of management industry, very often leads to such incidents, was, incidentally, is the main cause of early cancellation of the Tu-114 flight operations.

After reaching the international route of IL-62, Tu-114, losing the status of the leader of "Aeroflot", all the fleet were converted from Sheremetyevo to Domodedovo. There are 220-seat version of the regular flights to Alma-Ata, Tashkent, Novosibirsk and Khabarovsk, where there were long strips. The aircraft behaved as reliable as in the 1960s. Nickname "The Dragon" (Novosibirsk), or "Shaitan Arba" (Alma-Ata) were purely humorous, but not sarcastic. Occasionally there were cases of engine failure, not led to any serious consequences. There was a case of an emergency landing with faulty landing gear in Domodedovo, too, ended happily. However, after the majority of use of machines flying no more than 15 000 hours of all aircraft Tu-114 in November 1976 have been withdrawn from service and decommissioned no later than summer 1977.

Aircraft performance
5 persons
Cruising speed 
750 km/h
Range with maximum payload
7000 km.
Maximum range with a load of 16,000 kg.
8400 km.
Maximum takeoff weight
175000 kg.
Maximum payload 
22500 kg.
Number of passengers 
170 persons
Type of engine 
Engine power 
4*15000 hp