In the late 70's OKB been developing a training aircraft for pilots training with long-range aviation aerobatic qualities inherent in combat vehicles. Originally supposed to do it on the basis of the draft passenger Tu-136, but settled on a modification of the Tu-134B, satisfies the requirements for pilot training Tu-22M.
Tu-134UB-A with D-30 engines, 2nd series was designed for training pilots piloting instrument in simple and adverse weather conditions, air navigation, landing in director or automatic modes. The plane had to fly in a minimum of 2 nd category ICAO. Unlike its predecessor, the Tu-134UB-A installed a new forward fuselage, similar to the Tu-22M-3 radome radar ╚ ROSE-1 ╩.
The initial project involves the installation of machines in the nose of the bar system in-flight refueling, but due to the removal of similar equipment from the Tu-22M, it was abandoned. According to the composition of equipment it is mostly consistent with the Tu-134B, except for radio communication and navigation systems, typical of combat vehicles. For students and 12 seats were designed to scan, set in three rows. In flight, the cadets were trained at a time as the second pilot.
The first machine was built on the HAPO in January of 1981 until spring released several production aircraft, has successfully passed together with the customer flight tests. Before the 1983rd association deposited 90 Tu-134UB-A. For naval aviation produced a copy of the modified Tu-134UB-K for training navigators, navigators, and navigators, operators of the Tu-22M.