Thursday, May 24, 2012

Aircraft Tu-134

Tu-134 (commonly call this aircraft a whistle or a dude tupolenok) - Soviet passenger aircraft for the airlines of small and medium-haul, developed in the early 1960s in the Yakovlev Design Bureau. Tupolev and mass-produced from 1965 to 1984 at the Kharkov Aviation Production Association.
TU 134 it is one of the most popular passenger aircraft, gathered in the Soviet Union. A total of 852 aircraft of all modifications. The first flight was made July 29, 1963, the liner is in operation since September 1967.
By the early 1960s, the basis of short-haul fleet of aircraft in the Soviet Union and socialist countries were piston IL-14, who took on board 36 passengers. At this time, the Civil Aviation entered into a jet era.
The first in the Soviet Union jet Tu-104 was used only at the international and especially intra-loaded lines, while used on regional routes become obsolete aircraft. There was a need for a jet with a range up to 2000 km and a cruising speed of 800-900 km / h and passenger capacity of at least 40 people, which could be used on short runways.
It is considered that the Tu-134 owes its appearance directly to Nikita Khrushchev. In 1960, the First Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee was a guest at the launch in France of a new jet-Sud Caravelle Aviación. The plane made an impression on the Soviet leader, and on his return to the Soviet Union, Khrushchev ordered Tupolev to develop an analogue.
Initially, the Tu-134 is not designed as a new aircraft. In the KB was the idea of ​​modernization of the Tu-124. The plane lengthened fuselage, engines moved to the tail section and empennage replaced the T-shaped. The project, under the designation Tu-124A was developed in 1961. The first two prototypes were produced in 1963. In July of that year, the aircraft first took to the sky.
Flight testing and certification began in the summer of 1963. In 1965 the aircraft was given the designation Tu-134. At the same time, it was discontinued the production of the Tu-124. Serial production started in 1966. Tu-134 was produced at the Kharkov Aviation Production Association for 18 years (from 1966 to 1984).
The aircraft was designed for short-haul lines with low passenger traffic. Originally intended to place in an airplane 56 seats for passengers (two-class configuration of 50). But from the first class on the airplanes that were intended for intra-lines, soon decided to abandon. Due to this, the number of seats could bring up to 72.
In 1965, nine were produced specifically for pre-production aircraft flight tests. On the reverse of these ships was absent because of what mileage after landing was very large. Interestingly, the CB had planned to install on the Tu-134 brake parachutes like the Tu-104. However, this idea was soon abandoned. At the same time, engines with a thrust reverser on the Tu-134 were installed only in 1970. Were converted copies of all previously released. Prior to this plane helped slow a special guard under the fuselage - a very rare phenomenon in civil aviation.
The first production Tu-134 were transferred to Aeroflot in 1966. In September 1967 the Tu-134 was made the first commercial flight from Moscow to Adler.However, almost three years, the plane used only on international routes, and only in the summer of 1969 began to serve the intra-Moscow-Leningrad and Moscow and Kiev. Tu-134 is actively exported: in 1968 the first machines were sold to the East German airline Interflug, and later the Polish LOT.
In 1970 he developed a modification of Tu-134A. The aircraft fuselage was lengthened by two feet, installed on the engines reverse, brake shield removed, the number of seats increased to 76. As a result, the maximum flight range of 3100 km was reduced to 2770 km, with maximum payload - up to 2100 km. On airplanes, intended for export, it was decided to abandon the navigator and the radar set.
By early 1972, most of the Tu-134 continued to be used on international routes, while regular flights inside the USSR was only twelve: from Moscow to Baku, Yerevan, Kiev, Kishinev, Krasnodar, Leningrad, Omsk, Sochi and Riga. However, the May 18, 1972 near Kharkov crashed AN-10. In the disaster killed 116 people, and the flights of this type should be immediately discontinued.
In 1973, due to errors identified in the design of the operation of the AN-10 declined at all. Many Soviet airports began an urgent improvement of runways to receive the Tu-134. Due to lack of aircraft on regional routes most of the Tu-134 Sheremetyevo and Vnukovo, without exception, all squadrons have decided to replace the newly designed Tu-154 and Il-62 long-haul.
In 1980 he began production of the Tu-134B. In this modification of the navigator abandoned completely. In addition, the seating capacity was increased to 96 seats. Take-off weight increased to 47 tons. Also began the development of the Tu-134D version with increased thrust engines (8400 kg), but work on the aircraft were terminated.
Currently, the Tu-134 being phased out of service, as morally and physically obsolete: the latest released instances of more than a quarter century.
Tu-134 engines installed in the rear fuselage. Production aircraft equipped with turbojet bypass construction Soloviev D-30 (SS-30). The engine is made of two-shaft scheme consists of a compressor, separating the body from the boxes drive units, combustion chambers, turbines and an output device, equipped with a reversing device. Starting the engine air starter. Electronic ignition system, ignition unit includes SKNA-22-2A and two spark surface discharge SP-06VP.
Over the years, operating the Tu-134 has shown its reliability and efficiency, meeting all requirements of the time. In terms of safety factor Tu-134 proved to be virtually trouble free. The outstanding feature of the aircraft are unmatched to this day limit on the values ​​of the counter (30 m / c) and lateral (20 m / s) components of the wind during takeoff and landing.
In the USSR, where the vast majority of airports have only one runway, this quality has played a significant role in increasing regularity. After the entry into force of Chapter 3 of Annex 16 of ICAO in 2002, tougher noise standards for aircraft, operation of TU-134 in the EU countries was prohibited, and today it is used almost exclusively on domestic routes in Russia and CIS countries.
After the crash of Tu-134 at the airport Kurumoch in March 2007 it was announced that by 2015 the operation of aircraft of this model has been discontinued. January 1, 2008 the owner of one of the largest fleet of Tu-134 Aeroflot, stopped their operation. Part of the aircraft was transferred to the subsidiary Aeroflot Nord and Aeroflot-Don, some sold, some written off.
Until the early 1990s, the Tu-134 fleet in the USSR has carried 500 million passengers and now continues to work on the lines of the CIS countries and in the Air Force. At the beginning of 2006 were in operation 245 Tu-134, 162 of them - in Russia. By mid 2007 the number of Russian Tu-134 was reduced to 146 a year - up to 117 by early 2009 to around 100.
They are replaced by the Boeing 737, Airbus A319 and the Antonov An-148. In the long term to replace the last Tu-134 planes have come Superjet-100 project.More than half of the flying machines are used in Russia as a business charter.Among the users of the Tu-134, using them on regular flights - UTAir and Yamal.
In addition to passenger services, some modification of the Tu-134 are used in military and agricultural aviation. Thus, the Tu-134UBL training pilots undergo long-range aircraft (modification for training pilots of Tu-22M), the Tu-134SH - navigators (in the cabin, there are several full-time jobs for navigators navigators Tu-22M). We construct a number of machines for passenger-transport team personnel BC (staff), including special communication and equipped (ASDs).

Aircraft performance
3 persons
Cruising speed 
850 km/h
Flight range
1890 km.
Length required for take-off 
2400 m.
Length required for landing 
2200 m.
The maximum takeoff weight
47000 kg.
Maximum landing weight
43000 kg.
Curb weight of an aircraft 
29050 kg.
Permissible payload 8200
8200 kg.
The valid range of CG at takeoff, in flight, on landing: the front (chassis released),
21 %MAR
The valid range of CG at takeoff, in flight, on landing: back (removed the chassis)
38 %MAR

No comments:

Post a Comment